The rate, what to do if an alt is increased?

The article is prepared by a specialist for informational purposes. We urge you not to engage in self-medication. When the first symptoms appear - contact your doctor.

What shows Alt in the blood?

Alt in the blood

Alaninotransferase or abbreviated Alt is a special endogenous enzyme. It includes a transferase group and a subgroup of aminotransferase. The synthesis of this enzyme passes intracellularly. In the blood enters its limited quantity. Therefore, when biochemical analysis shows the increased content of Alt, this indicates the presence of a number of deviations in the body and the development of serious diseases. Often they are associated with the destruction of the organs, which leads to a sharp emission into the blood of the enzyme. As a result, the activity of Alaninotransferase is also enhanced. Installing the extensity of necrosis or degree of lesion of tissue disease based on this is difficult, since the enzyme is uncharacteristic organ specificity.

AlanineNotransferase is contained in many human bodies: kidneys, heart muscle, liver and even skeletal muscles. The main function of the enzyme is to exchange amino acids. It acts as a catalyst for reversible portes of alanine from amino acids for alpha-ketoglutarata. As a result of the transfer of the amino group, glutamy and peyrogradic acids are obtained. Alanine in the tissues of the human body is necessary, since it is an amino acid capable of quickly turning into glucose. Thus, it is possible to obtain energy for the work of the brain and the central nervous system. In addition, among the important functions of Alanine, the strengthening of the organism's immune system, the production of lymphocytes, regulation of the exchange of acids and sugars.

The greatest activity of Alaninotransferase was revealed in serum in men. In women, the processes involving the enzyme flow slower. The highest concentration is marked in kidneys and liver, then skeletal muscles, spleen, pancreas, red blood cells, lungs, heart.

What is the analysis for?

The greatest number of transferase is detected in the liver. This observation is used to detect diseases of this organ that do not have external symptoms. Alt, in contrast to many other components considered with the biochemical blood test, studied most fully. Therefore, with it, you can even identify minor problems in the body. In some cases, the amount of ALT is compared with the volume of other elements in the blood. This allows you to draw conclusions about the presence of pathologies.

For example, this enzyme is often used as aspartaminotransferase or AST. It is also synthesized intracellularly, and its limited quantity falls into the blood. The deviation from aspartaminotransferase installed in medicine, as in the case of Alaninotransferase, is the manifestation of deviations in the work of some organs. The most complete picture of the nature of pathology allows to obtain the correlation of the contained number of both enzymes. If there is an excess of the amount of alanine substransferase over aspartaminotransferase, this indicates the destruction of liver cells. The level of AST is sharply rising in the later stages of the disease of this body, such as cirrhosis. When the level of aspartaminotransferase exceeds the content of the alaninotransferase, problems with the heart muscle are observed.

Confirm the presence of the disease and the degree of damage to organs allow additionally conducted diagnostic methods. However, Alt is an accurate indicator, in some cases it can be installed even the stage of the disease and assume possible options for its development.

When is the analysis on Alt?

Analysis on Alt.

The volume of the content of alanine substransferase is determined within the framework of the general biochemical analysis of blood. It is often assigned only one type of survey when there is no need to use additional methods. It turns out to be an analysis on Alt. Conducted by this election fabric specialization that the enzyme has.

The number of alaninotransferase during problems with the liver helps to identify them even before the appearance of the most characteristic symptom - jaundice. Therefore, the analysis of the Alt The doctor prescribes most often in order to test the presence of damage to this important organ as a result of the reception of drugs or any other substances that are toxic for the body. The study is also conducted in suspected hepatitis. Analysis on Alt is obligatory in the presence of symptoms as increased fatigue and weakness of the patient. He loses appetite, often feels nausea moving in vomiting. Yellow spots on the skin, pain and discomfort in the stomach, yellowing of eye proteins, lightweight feces and dark urine - all this can be a sign of a liver disease. In such cases, this analysis is required.

Alt can be compared with AST for more information about the causes of liver damage. This is done if the number of enzymes significantly exceeds the norm. The attitude of AST to Alt is known in medicine as a coefficient de ritis. Its normal value ranges from 0.91 to 1.75. If this indicator becomes more than 2, the damage to the heart muscle flowing with the destruction of cardiomycites is diagnosed. Myocardial infarction is also possible. The coefficient de ritis, not exceeding 1, testifies to liver diseases. Moreover, the lower the value of the indicator, the greater the risk of adverse outcome.

Analysis on Alt can be used not only as a method of diagnosis, but also during treatment. This allows you to determine the dynamics of the disease and identify improvements or deterioration of the patient's condition. Analysis on Alt is necessary if there are factors contributing to the diseases of the liver. These include abuse of alcoholic beverages or drugs that destroy organic cells. Upon exceeding the normal amount of alanine substransferase in the blood, other drugs are prescribed. Be sure to check the amount of ALT, if the patient contacted hepatitis patients or recently transferred it, has diabetes and overweight. Some people have a predisposition to liver diseases. They are also shown an analysis on Alt.

When it is carried out either venous or capillary blood. To obtain reliable results, you need to follow some requirements. First, it is not 12 hours before the delivery and not to use alcohol for a week. Even a small amount of food can significantly affect the result. Secondly, for half an hour before analyzing, to abandon smoking, not worrying, avoiding moral and physical overvoltage. Results are usually ready after the day after passing.

The norm of Alt in the blood in men and women

Alt in the blood

Alaninaotransferase (Alt, or Alat) - Marker enzymes for the liver.

Aspartataminotransferase (AST, or ASAT) - Marker enzymes for myocardium.

The amount of alianinotransferase enzyme content is measured in units per liter.

Alt (Alat) in children

Alt in children fluctuates depending on age:

  • In newborns up to 5 days: Alt should not exceed 49 units. (AST to 149 units / l.)

  • For children until six months, this figure is higher - 56 U / l.

  • At the age of half a year before a year, the number of Alt in the blood can reach 54 units / l

  • From year to three - 33 units, but gradually the normal amount of the enzyme in the blood decreases

  • In children from 3 to 6 years, its upper limit is 29 units.

  • In 12 years, the content of alanineotransferase must be less than 39 units / l

Children allowed minor deviations from the norm. This is due to uneven growth. Over time, the amount of enzyme in the blood should stabilize and approach normal.

Alt (Alat) in adults

Enzyme

Norm for men

Norm for women

In mmol / l

Alt (Alat)

up to 45 e / l. (0.5 - 2 μmol)

up to 34 units (0.5 - 1.5 μmol)

28 - 190 mmol / l (0.12-0.88)

AST (Asat)

up to 41 units / l

up to 31 units / l

28 - 125 mmol / l (0.18-0.78)

The degree of enhancement enzymes

The degree of enhancement enzymes

At what diseases AST and Alt increase?

  • Myocardial infarction (more AST);

  • Acute viral hepatitis (more than Alt);

  • Toxic liver damage;

  • Malignant tumors and metastases in the liver;

  • Destruction of skeletal muscles (crash syndrome)

But the results of the analysis on Alt are often far from established norms. This may be not only connected with the presence of inflammatory processes in the body, but also with other factors. Increased content of alaninotransferase can be provoked by aspirin, warfarin, paracetamol and oral contraceptives in women. Therefore, the doctor should be aware of the use of such drugs before passing an analysis to Alt. A similar action is provided by valerian and echinacea medicines. Invalid analysis results may be caused by increased motor activity or intramuscular injections.

Alt increased blood

Alt increased blood

The amount of alaninotransferase in the blood is considered elevated if it exceeds the established rate, especially in tens, and in some cases and hundreds of times. Depending on this, the presence of a disease is determined. With an increase in the level of Alt, the myocardial infarction can be diagnosed 5 times if it reaches 10-15 times you can talk about the deterioration of the patient's condition after the attack. The value of the de ritis coefficient is also varied in a majority.

Hepatitis provokes an increase in Alt in the blood of 20-50 times, muscle dystrophy and dermatomyositis - in 8. On gangrene, acute pancreatitis speaks exceeding the upper limit of the indicator of 3-5 times.

It is possible not only an increase in the content of the alaninotransferase in the blood. Its too low is associated with a disadvantage of vitamin B6, which is part of this enzyme, or with complex inflammatory processes in the liver.

What does the increase in Alt say?

The increase in Alt testifies to the flow of inflammatory processes in the body. They may be caused by the following diseases:

  • Hepatitis. This inflammatory liver disease can be represented in several forms. For chronic or viral hepatitis, the excess of the level of alanine substransferase in the blood is insignificant. When hepatitis, the analysis of ALT makes it possible to identify infection in advance. The amount of enzyme in the blood increases in a week before the first external manifestations of the disease in the form of jaundice appear. Viral or alcohol hepatitis is accompanied by a pronounced increase in the level of Alt.

  • Liver cancer. This malignant tumor is often formed in patients with hepatitis. Analysis on the ALT in this case is necessary both for the diagnosis of the disease and to make a decision on an operating solution. When the level of alaninotransferase significantly exceeds the norm, the conduct of surgical intervention may not be possible, since the risk of various complications is great.

  • Pancreatitis. The presence of this disease also says the level of Alt. His elevated number indicates the exacerbation of pancreatitis. Analysis on Alt to patients with such a diagnosis will have to be carried out periodically throughout life. This will help avoid the attacks of the disease and monitor the progress of treatment.

  • Myocarditis. It manifests itself in the defeats of the heart muscle. The main symptoms are shortness of breath, fast fatigue patient and the increased content of Alt in the blood. To diagnose this disease, the level of AST is determined, and then the coefficient de ritis is calculated.

  • Cirrhosis. This disease is dangerous in that a long time may not have pronounced symptoms. Patients are quickly tired, feel fatigue. Less often arise pain in the liver area. In this case, the cirrhosis can be determined by the elevated content of Alt in the blood. The amount of enzyme in the blood may exceed 5 times.

  • Myocardial infarction. This disease is a consequence of blood flow disorders, resulting in necrosis of the heart muscle tissue. In the case of an uncomplicated infarction, the Alt level increases slightly compared to AST, it can nevertheless be used to determine the attack.

Causes of increasing Alt.

Fast Fud.
  • Reception of a number of medicinal or plant preparations - barbiturates, statins, antibiotics;

  • Frequent use of fast food before passing an analysis to Alt;

  • muscle damage;

  • drinking alcohol less than a week before blood intake;

  • non-compliance with the basic rules for passing the analysis, including the sterility of the procedure;

  • increased emotional or physical exertion;

  • Conducting shortly before analyzing the catheterization of the heart muscle or other surgical intervention;

  • Steatosis - a disease manifested in the accumulation of fat cells in the field of liver, most often occurs in people with overweight;

  • necrosis of a malignant tumor;

  • Chemotherapy;

  • receiving narcotic substances;

  • lead poisoning of the body;

  • psychological shock;

  • mononucleosy infectious disease, which manifests itself in changing the composition of blood, liver damage and spleen;

  • hepatitis.

Alt increased during pregnancy

In women, the amount of alaninotransferase is limited to 31 units. However, in the first trimester of pregnancy, a minor excess of this value is possible. This is not considered a deviation and does not indicate the development of any disease. In general, the level of ALT and AST during pregnancy should be stable.

A small increase in the number of enzymes of this group is observed in gestosis. In this case, they have a light or middle severity. Gestosis is a complication that happens in late pregnancy. Women experiencing weakness, dizziness and nausea. They increase blood pressure. The greater the deviation of the Alt from the norm, the harder the gestosis proceeds. This is the result of too much load on the liver with which it cannot cope.

How to lower Alt in the blood?

Reduced the content of the alaninotransferase in the blood in the blood, by eliminating the cause of this phenomenon. Since the most common factor in the rise of Alt is the diseases of the liver, hearts, begin to begin with their treatment. After the course of procedures and the reception of the corresponding drugs, a biochemical blood test is re-made. With proper treatment, the level of ALT must come back.

Sometimes it uses special preparations such as heifitol, hepta, Duhalak. The doctor should appoint them, and the reception is under his supervision. Most preparations have contraindications that need to be considered before starting treatment. However, such funds do not eliminate the main cause of the increase in Alt. Some time after receiving drugs, the level of the enzyme can change again. Therefore, it is necessary to refer to a qualified specialist who will put the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment.

Article author: Mochalov Pavel Aleksandrovich | d. n. therapist

Education:

Moscow Medical Institute. I. M. Sechenov, specialty - "Therapeutic Case" in 1991, in 1993 "Professional Diseases", in 1996 "Therapy".

Our authors

Alt and Ast: What are these analyzes?

Alt and Ast - these abbreviations can often be seen in blood test on biochemistry. What do they mean? What can you tell the doctor? The gastroenterologist "Clinic Expert" Kursk Vasilisa Vladimirovna Ishchenko is responsible for our questions.

- Vasilisa Vladimirovna, what do Alt and Asta abbreviations mean?

- Alt, or Alaninotransferase, is an endogenous enzyme produced by cells of the liver - hepatocytes. The content of it in the serum is slightly. The greatest concentration of ALT is noted in the liver, so this enzyme is a specific marker of diseases of this organ. In addition, in small quantities of Alt, it is possible to detect in the kidneys, heart muscle, skeletal muscles, pancreas.

AST, or aspartaminotransferase, is also an enzyme from the Transaminase group, which is involved in the exchange of amino acids. It is contained mainly in the liver, myocardium, nervous tissue, skeletal muscles, in smaller quantities - in the kidneys, pancreas, spleen, lightweight fabric.

In case of damage to the cells under the infection of infectious or toxic factors, the energy exchange in cells changes. Due to the violation of the permeability of cell membranes in the serum, the components of the cytoplasm and broken intracellular structures are falling, including enzymes. As a result, the level of ALT and AST in the blood increases. This breakdown complex was called cytolytic syndrome.

- What will indicate the indicators of Alt and Ast in biochemical blood test?

- Normally concentration of transaminases and their relationship between themselves in the blood plasma - permanent values. They reflect the equilibrium of the formation and release of these enzymes. In addition, this balance indicates the normal flow of physiological destruction of the aged cells (apoptosis). The deviation from the norm of the level of Alt and AST and the change in their ratio is observed in pathological processes.

The degree of increase in the activity of these enzymes allows us to judge the severity of the cytolytic syndrome. However, these indicators do not always indicate the severity of the body's defeat and do not allow the doctor to judge the prospects for the development of the disease. Therefore, along with the analysis of ALT and AST, specialists usually prescribe a complex of laboratory and instrumental methods of examination, and also observe the level of enzymes in the dynamics.

- In what cases is it recommended to conduct these analyzes?

- Alt and AST data data may be important with such nonspecific symptoms as general weakness, reduced performance, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, meteorism, yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes. These indicators are defined for the diagnosis of diseases and assessing the functioning of the liver.

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- What are the reasons for increasing Alt and Ast in the blood?

- acute and chronic viral, toxic hepatitis, autoimmune diseases, enzymesopathy, liver cirrhosis, tumor processes and metastases in the liver, infectious mononucleosis, light embolism, poliomyelitis, malaria, leptospirosis - with many pathological conditions, we observe an increase in the level of these enzymes in the blood. Also, the indicators of ALT and AST are rising with myocardial infarction. Small short-term changes in their level may be observed with heavy physical exertion.

I want to note that an important diagnostic indicator is the ratio between Alt and Ast (the so-called coefficient de ritis). This coefficient helps us to distinguish, for example, viral hepatitis from alcohol liver damage, myocardial infarction from liver disease.

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- What can be due to the decrease in the indicators of Alt and Ast in the blood?

- with deficiency of vitamin B6, a heavy form of a liver cirrhosis, pancreatic pathologies, with renal failure (especially in patients on hemodialysis).

- How does the level of Alt and Ast in the blood change in blood during pregnancy?

- Since the liver during this period produces a detoxification of the body not only the mother, but also the fetus, it is possible to observe the level of these enzymes.

- Vasilisa Vladimirovna, whether preparing for the surrender of the analysis on Alt and AST? If so, what?

- Certainly required. Blood from Vienna must be handed over in the morning on an empty stomach (the last meal is 12 hours before the study). On the eve of the analysis of the analysis, severe physical voltage should be avoided, changes in the diet, drinking alcoholic beverages. For half an hour before the blood fence, you need to refrain from smoking.

I want to emphasize that the definition of only the level of ALT and AST is not always informative enough, so most often doctors prescribe them in a complex with other biochemical indicators.

Would you like to read about other analyzes? Articles about them you will find in our heading on laboratory diagnostics

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Argued Sevil Ibraimov

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For reference:

Alt and Ast: What are these analyzes?

Ishchenko Vasilisa Vladimirovna

Graduate of the Medical Faculty of the Kursk State Medical University of 2015.

In 2016, she completed the internship in the direction of "therapy" and passed retraining on gastroenterology.

Currently holds the position of a gastroenterologist's doctor in the "Clinic Expert" Kursk. Wills at the address: ul. Karl Liebknecht, 7.

Alast abbreviation is deciphered as an indicator of the blood of the enzymes of alaninotransferase, astes - asparagynotrase. The indicators of AST and Alt are included in the study of biochemical blood test.

They were open in medicine relatively recently. The blood test to AST and Alt is carried out jointly and, accordingly, their norm should be the same, and fully depends on each other.

Such an indicator of analyzes, as an increase in ALT and AST in blood in 2 or more times, should make it seem to think about the occurrence of certain diseases. First you need to figure out what Alt and AST is. What is the norm of these compounds in the blood and what should be done if at least one indicator is raised?

What does the increase in Alt and AST is higher than the norm

In adults, the content of Alt and Ast in various organs is not the same, therefore an increase in one of these enzymes may indicate a disease of a certain organ.

  • Alt (Alat, Alaninaotransferase) - an enzyme that is mainly in the cells of the liver, kidney, muscles, hearts (myocardium - heart muscle) and pancreas. During their damage, a large amount of Alt comes out of the destroyed cells, which leads to an increase in its blood level.
  • AST (Asat, Aspartataminotransferase) - an enzyme, which is also contained in the cells of the heart (in myocardium), liver, muscles, nervous tissues, and to a lesser extent in the lungs, kidney, pancreas. Damage to the above bodies lead to an increase in the level of AST in the blood.

Basically, the Norm of Alt and AST in the blood depends entirely on the work of the most important parenchymal organ - liver, which performs such functions as:

  1. Synthesis protein.
  2. Production of biochemicals necessary for the body.
  3. Detoxification - removal from the body toxic substances and poisons.
  4. The storage of glycogen - polysaccharide, which is necessary for the full vital activity of the body.
  5. Regulation of biochemical reactions of synthesis and decay of most microparticles.

Normally, the content of Alt and Ast depends on the floor. In an adult woman, the level of ALT and AST does not exceed 31 ed / l. In men, the Alt Norma does not exceed 45 U / L, and AST 47 U / l. Depending on the age of the child, the level of ALT and AST changes, while the content of ALT should not be higher than 50 units / l, AST - 140 units (from birth to 5 days) and no more than 55 units for children up to 9 years.

Depending on the equipment, which conducted a study, it is possible to vary the norms and reference values ​​of the level of enzymes. Increasing the speed of updating enzymes, cell damage leads to an increase in the level of transaminase in the blood.

Causes of increasing Alt and Ast

Why is adults Alt and Ast enhanced, what does this mean? The most likely reason for increasing liver enzymes in the blood is:

  1. Hepatitis and other liver diseases (liver cirrhosis, fatty hepatosis - substitution of liver cells with fat cells, liver cancer, etc.).
  2. The increase in ALT and AST as a consequence of the disease of other organs (autoimmune thyroiditis, mononucleosis).
  3. Myocardial infarction is necrosis (death) of the heart muscle site, as a result of which Alt and Ast are allocated to the blood.
  4. Diffuse lesions of the liver, which can be caused by alcohol, drugs and (or) action of the virus.
  5. Extensive injuries with muscle damage, as well as burns cause an increase in alt in the blood.
  6. Acute and chronic pancreatitis.
  7. Metastase or neoplasm in the liver.
  8. Reaction to medication.
  9. Reception of anabolic steroids.

AST and Alt are important indicators of the state of various organs. The increase in these enzymes indicates damage to organs, such as the liver, heart, muscle, pancreas, etc. Thus, the decline in their blood levels occurs independently when eliminating the underlying disease.

Prevention

In order for the rate of indicators not exceeding the permissible borders, it is recommended to avoid long-term receptions of drugs.

If this is impossible because of the chronic disease, then it is better to regularly take an analysis to ASAT so that it is not enhanced or to prevent a serious increase in time. Periodically, you need to visit the gastroenterologist and hepatologist, which will be able to identify a possible disease and prescribe treatment.

What to do if Alt and Ast enhanced

In order to quickly and objectively understand the true reason for increasing the levels of activity of Alt and AST enzyme activity, it is necessary to additionally pass biochemical analyzes.

First of all, it is advisable to determine the levels of general bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and GGTP (gamma-glovedransferase) and estimate the degree of safety of the main functions of the liver. To eliminate the viral nature of the liver damage (acute viral hepatitis), which is also accompanied by an increase in the indicators of ALT and AST in the blood, it will be necessary to donate blood to specific antigens of viral hepatitis and specific antibodies to these antigens.

In some cases, it is shown the study of the serum of the PCR method for the presence of DNA VGV and RNA HCV.

Alt or Alat (Alaninaotransferase) and AST or Asat (aspartataminotransferase) is a combination of complex protein molecules with non-emblems permanent cell elements, otherwise enzymes. Their main purpose is to accelerate the chemical reaction of amino acids (alanine and asparaginic), which communicate between protein and carbohydrate exchange. The development of enzymes in the body occurs endogenously, that is, intracellular, therefore, in the blood of a healthy person, the concentration of Asat and Alat is insignificant.

General information about Alt

The main location of the Locations of Alaninotransferase is hepatocytes (hepatic cells). In smaller quantities, it is contained in myocardium, pancreas, kidneys and muscle tissues. Aspartataminotransferase is concentrated, to a greater extent, in the heart muscle, as well as in the liver, neurons of the brain, the muscles of the skeleton.

When destructive changes in the listed organs, enzymes are released and in large quantities fall into systemic blood flow. When the AST or Alt enzyme in the blood is increased, this means a violation of the integrity of organ cells, therefore, the development of pathological processes.

Alt and Ast are closely correlated. The healthy ratio of enzymes, otherwise the coefficient de ritis, varies within the boundaries from 0.91 to 1.75. Low coefficient (below units) indicates the presence of hepatic pathologies. Excess the indicator 2 times indicates the destruction of myocardium.

The concentration of the amalate is identified within the framework of blood biochemistry. The enzyme is a marker of the organic state of hepatocytes, and liver performance. According to its quantitative content, the signs of hepatic diseases are determined on the preclinical stage, that is, before the appearance of characteristic symptoms of changing the color of the skin and mucous membranes (jaundice).

An increase in the indicators of the main enzyme hepatocyte allows the doctor to assume the presence:

  • hepatitis of various etiologies;
  • cancer processes in the liver;
  • cirrhosis (all varieties);
  • steatosis (liver dystrophy);
  • fat hepatosis;
  • cholestasis (violation of the synthesis and outflow of bile);
  • progressive muscle dystrophy;
  • toxic lesion of the liver (medicinal, alcoholic, etc.);
  • pancreas diseases;
  • Violation of cardiac activity.

First of all, the suspected pathologies associated with cytolysis (the destruction of hepatocytes) fall under suspicion. The unsatisfactory results of Alt (ALT) in biochemical analysis need additional check with laboratory and hardware methods. Based on the blood indicators alone, pathology is assumed, but not diagnosed finally.

Biochemistry of blood

Blood biochemistry research parameters

Signs of increasing values

Biochemical blood test - method of laboratory study of bioshasis, in order to identify functional disorders in organism organs and systems. The study is appointed:

  • According to symptomatic complaints of the patient (sustainable pain of any localization, disruption of digestion, heart and respiration, faults in the work of the nervous, endocrine, hepatobiliary system and the renal apparatus);
  • within the framework of the dispensary;
  • in preventive purposes;
  • when contacting patients infected with viral hepatitis;
  • To control therapy of diagnosed diseases.

Women in the perinatal period give blood on a biochemistry several times, which makes it possible to promptly diagnose possible disorders in the body of the future mother, negatively affecting the development of the child. Special attention to the indicators of an alote in the analysis of blood is given when the symptoms of hepatic pathologies in the patient:

  • nausea and severity in the opposite region;
  • alternating diarrhea and concentration (constipation);
  • loss of interest in food (loss of appetite);
  • yellow flare in the language and bitterness in the oral cavity;
  • subfebrile (37-38 ° C) body temperature;
  • skin itching (especially in the face of the face);
  • Changing the shade of excrement on the light yellow, dark color of urine;
  • pain in the hypochritic region on the right;
  • Yellowish shade of eye proteins
  • chronic meteorism;
  • Teleangectasia (vascular stars) and hematomas of non-immoral origin;
  • Edema.

With diagnosed liver diseases, the analysis on the content of AsaT and alto the blood can be assigned separately, to control the dynamics of treatment.

Rules for the preparation and analysis of analysis

To obtain objective results, making analysis on biochemistry follows after simple preliminary preparation. The patient must comply with the following conditions:

  • For 5-7 days, eliminate the use of alcohol beverages, because the toxic ethanol metabolites disrupt the processes of protein synthesis and enzymes in the liver.
  • in 2-3 days to eliminate fatty foods and fried dishes from the diet, so as not to create an additional load on the liver and the pancreas;
  • temporarily abandon the use of drugs;
  • Observe fasting mode before the procedure for at least 8-12 hours.

Why do you need to take an analysis of an empty stomach? This is due to the fact that any food changes the composition of the blood, and fats make plasma muddy. The results of the study conducted on the full stomach will be inaccurate.

The reference values ​​of Alt.

The normative values ​​of the ALT are classified by gender (in men and women) and in the age category of the patient. In children from the moment of birth to 6 months, the norms are raised, then change depending on age, and acquire stability after the age of majority.

The maintenance of the enzyme in the blood in women affects the baby tooling, the reception of hormonal oral contraceptives, menopause. Minor (within 25%) Increased Alt in blood during pregnancy, and a decrease after 50 years, not taken to pathological changes.

Reference! The value of the measurement of alaninotransferase is an un / l. The coefficient for translation into the system (mmol / l) is 5.6.

The upper boundary of children's influence in the blood of the enzyme in the blood should not exceed the following values ​​(in un / l):

Newborn Up to 6 months. Until a year Up to three years old Up to 6 years old Until agent
49. 56. 54. 33. 29. 39.

Reference values ​​of AlanineNotransferase for adults:

Norm in un / l Norm in mmol / l
Men 45. 252.
women 34. ≈ 190.

When evaluating the indicators of the ALT, mandatory, the obtained AST values ​​are taken into account. Decoding analysis results is carried out during the day.

Causes of deviation from the norm

The enzyme indicator may deviate from the regulatory values ​​as towards the zoom, and in the direction of decline. Both variants are unsatisfactory, and indicate intensive destruction of cells. The reduced level of Alat is fixed much less frequently than an increase in the concentration of the enzyme in the blood.

Allocate two main reasons for lowering indicators:

  • extensive necrosis of hepatocytes, as a result of launched chronic liver diseases;
  • Long deficit in the body of pyridoxine (vitamin in 6).

Vitamin B. 6takes an active part in the production of Alat and Asat. With its chronic shortage, enzymes are synthesized in insufficient quantity. Hyperfermenia (elevated level of amalate) is classified by four degrees:

  • Easy - increase in the indicators of 3-5 times;
  • moderate - 5-6 times;
  • average - more than 6 times;
  • High - more than 10 times.

The reasons for the increase in Alt are associated with acute or chronic pathologies of the liver and heart. Myocardial infarction (necrosis of the heart muscle site) is allegedly diagnosed with an ALT indicator exceeding the standards of 5 or more times. The rhythis coefficient is also increasing. Acute inflammation of the pancreas gives an increase in the enzyme indicators at least 3 times, the dystrophy of the muscular apparatus is 7-8 times.

With viral hepatitis, there is an increased value of alaninotransferase, at 20-50 times. There are three main types of viral disease two additional:

  • Botkin's disease or hepatitis A;
  • serum (hepatitis B);
  • post-transfusion or hepatitis C;
  • Type D and E (diseases associated with basic types).

With toxic (alcoholic) hepatitis, the aslat indicators can be increased hundred times. The high level of the enzyme in the results of biochemistry, especially in the absence of pronounced symptoms, is a reason for the additional examination. The patient must be supplied to the blood of an immunofermental analysis (ELISA) to identify the hepatitis virus.

In case of incurable cirrotic lesion of the liver (cirrhosis), the content of Alt in the blood can be increased from 225 units / l to 2250 units. Results depend on the stage and etiology of the disease. Cirrosis may have the following etiology:

  • viral - formed as a complication of hepatitis A, B, C;
  • Pharmacological or medicinal - develops with prolonged incorrect reception of medicines;
  • toxic (alcoholic) - arises as a consequence of chronic alcoholism;
  • Exchange-alimentary - formed against the background of chronic pathologies of the endocrine system; cryptogenic (with an unidentified nature of origin);
  • biliary (primary and secondary) - is a complication of gallbladder diseases;
  • An autoimmune caused by development is a failure in the work of the body's immune system.

The highest indicator of Alt is fixed in the viral and alcohol variety of cirrhosis. If there is a suspicion of cirrotic changes in the hepatic tissue, the patient urgently needs to do ultrasound of the abnormal organs.

Cirrhosis of the liver

To other possible reasons for the enzyme level include:

  • Pancreonenecosis, otherwise the motion of the pancreas cells, as a complication of the launched pancreatitis.
  • Cholecystopancatite and chronic inflammation of the pancreas. In the latent periods of the disease, the level of alanineotransferase is raised slightly. A sharp increase in the enzyme in the blood means an aggravation of the disease.
  • Myocarditis (heart muscle inflammation). Pathology is diagnosed compared to the indicators of ALT and AST and the calculation of the Ritis coefficient.
  • Acute and chronic liver diseases (steatosis, steatohepatitis, hepatosis).
  • Cancer rebirth of hepatocytes (more often, it occurs as a complication of chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis).
  • Alcoholic, medicinal or other liver intoxication.
  • Chemotherapeutic course of treatment.
  • Heart attack and pre-infarction state.
  • The infection caused by the Epstein Barra virus (mononucleosis).

In the case when the alleged diagnosis is not confirmed in the course of further surveys, false results may mean non-compliance with the preparation conditions (alcohol, consumption of oily foods), as well as the state of neuro-psychological stress or physical oschades at the time of blood delivery.

Recommendations for the correction of indicators

To reduce the high figure of Alt in the blood, first of all, it is necessary to begin treatment of the underlying disease that affected the results of the analysis. Since in most cases, an increased concentration of amalats is due to the development of hepatic pathologies, drugs of the hepatoprotective group are prescribed:

  • Essential-phospholipid (complex compounds of alcohols, high molecular weights and lipids). Stimulate the regeneration of hepatocytes, stabilize the exchange processes, maintain the balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (Essliver, phosphycial, Essentiality Fort H, phosphoglie, etc.).
  • Hepatoprotectors Lipotropic. Brokes or stop liver fatty infiltration (heptral, betaring, hepa-merez).
  • Vegetable hepatoprotectors. Promote the restoration of liver cells, treatment requires long-term use. Tablets contain natural extracts of medicinal herbs (Liv-52, Silimar, Carsil, Bondjigar, etc.).

Additional therapy is carried out by drugs based on ursodeoxycholic acid (Ursosan, urdox, urms), and lipoic acid, promoting neutralization of toxins and alcohol decay products. You can lower Alt using dietherapy. The patient with disorders of the functional abilities of the liver and pancreas is assigned a diet "Table No. 5".

Healthy nutrition

Brief table of permitted and prohibited products when improving Alt in the blood

Important! With the oversized ALT indicators, any alcoholic beverages are completely excluded from the menu!

RESULTS

Alaninotransferase (ALT) is an endogenous enzyme accelerating the chemical response of alanine amino acid. The main part of the amalate is contained in the liver, the rest is localized in the pancreas, myocardium and muscles. In a healthy man, the amount of enzyme in the blood is no more than 45 units / l, a woman has 34 units.

If the indicators are significantly enhanced, it means that tissues and cells are pathologically changed and have serious damage through which the alanineotransferase penetrates into the bloodstream. Determining the level of ALT is carried out within the framework of biochemical blood test.

In most cases, with an increased value of the enzyme, liver disease (hepatitis, hepatosis, cirrhosis, etc.), chronic or acute pancreatitis, diversity of cardiac activity (myocarditis, heart attack) are diagnosed. The diagnosis must be confirmed by a detailed examination, including a number of laboratory tests and hardware diagnostic procedures.

Almost any problems in the human body affect the composition of the blood, therefore its biochemical analysis serves as the basis of diagnosis. Many patients as a result interest the figures of Allat and Asat. Hepatic samples for enzymes - the most important method for identifying severe liver diseases.

Consultation on the results of analyzes and ultrasound - 500 rubles. (at the request of the patient)

These substances are representatives of the enzyme group, in the norm having a slight level in the blood. In case of diseases accompanied by the destruction of cells, the indicators of these enzymes increase in analyzes at times and even dozens of times, which serves as a confirmation of the presence of a pathological process.

The value of the liver enzymes

Transferase is served by a separate enzyme class - molecular residue transfer catalysts and functional groups from the molecule to the molecule.

Alat and Asat

Transferases are involved in the transformations of nucleic and amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates. The most significant enzymes of the liver are the indicators of alosy and asate that perform several tasks at once.

  • Molecular intracellular synthesis provides sufficient liver functionality.
  • Enzymodiagnosis carried out by measuring the degree of activity of enzymes in the blood. The reliability of this method is based on the fact that the liver enzymes in a healthy person is found inside the cell, leaving it only after the death of the cell itself.
  • The prognostic role of enzymes is associated with the peculiarities of their dynamics in the composition of the blood, which directly depends on the nature of the course and severity of the disease.
  • The dosage role of enzymes is to use special enzyme preparations with their deficiencies in the body.

What is Alaninotransferase (Alat)

The functioning of the human body is provided by multiple chemical processes, which are simultaneously cyclical and interrelated, continuous and sequentially. Enzymes play one of the main roles in blood filtering systems and digestion. Alaninotransferase (Alat) is the main liver enzyme involved in the exchange of amino acids. Most of the enzyme is in the liver, a small amount in the kidneys, heart and skeletal muscles.

Alanine itself is important as a source of fast production of glucose for the power of the brain and the CNS. The study of the level of Alat and Asata in the blood makes it much easier for the diagnosis and forecast of severe diseases and damage to the liver, heart and pancreas.

The specificity of the amalate allows differentiation of diseases according to the degree of exceeding the normative values, which is very important with weak symptoms, similarity of the manifestations of various diseases. Using alto the indicators in combination with other tests, the doctor can determine the degree of damage to organs and make a forecast of the course of the disease.

What do the Alat test do

The endogenous enzyme Alat serves as a reliable marker of hepatic samples - liver pathologies in diagnostic laboratory practice. Alanineotransferase is formed due to intracellular synthesis, so it is present in the blood in minor doses.

Blood test for maintenance Alat. A healthy person shows the minimum value. Diseases or liver damage cause the death of its cells, while the intracellular liver enzyme enzyme in the blood is released, which, along with other indicators, is a rather informative indicator of painful processes. Any deviations of the enzyme indicator from the regulatory range, especially in the direction of increasing, are an indisputable sign of a beginner disease of the cooking or an extensive process of its destruction

There may also be an increased level of alto in pregnant women, with heart attack and individual pathological conditions. An increase in the dose of the blood of blood is noted before the manifestations of jaundice, which allows the early diagnosis of liver diseases.

To Alates Test

The Alat test is prescribed if there are separate symptoms and factors:

Symptoms of liver diseases:

  • weakness, lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting;
  • abdominal pain, jaundice;
  • Dark urine and clarified cal.

Liver disease risk factors:

  • previously transferred hepatitis,
  • alcohol addiction,
  • diabetes and obesity,
  • hereditary reasons
  • Reception of drugs aggressively affecting the liver.

Alate blood test is carried out for the following purposes:

  • checking possible damage to the liver during injuries;
  • identification of narcotic and alcohol dependence in the framework of a complex of interrelated indicators;
  • evaluation of the action of anticholesterine therapy and a number of other drugs relative to the toxic liver;
  • Finding out the cause of the appearance of jaundice in the patient - liver disease or violation of blood functions.

The patient who has been appointed Alat-test must inform his doctor about the presence of reasons that can reduce the accuracy of the results of the analysis:

  • Reception of some drugs, dietary supplements and herbal info (oral contraceptives and aspirin, warfarin and paracetamol, Valerian and Echinacea info);
  • possible pregnancy;
  • the presence of allergies;
  • passage of intramuscular injection courses;
  • rehabilitation period after cardiological operation or heart catheterization;
  • Active physical exertion in front of the test.

The test is carried out on the basis of the patient's venous blood, the results can be prepared by about 12 hours.

Almighty levels

The normative indicator of the amalate as part of the diagnostic complex " Biochemistry of blood »May differ slightly in different laboratories, but on average the boundaries of this indicator for men are equal to 10-40 units, for women - from 7 to 35 units / l. The criteria of differentiation of diseases are the levels of exceeding the norm of Alat:

Insignificant:

  • Adoption of medicines and chemicals (antibiotics and barbiturates, chemotherapy and drugs),
  • cirrhosis of the liver,
  • fat lesion of the liver;

Moderate and secondary:

  • Alcoholic poisoning,
  • Some forms of hepatitis,
  • growth problems in adolescents;

High:

  • necrosis of the cancer tumor
  • viral hepatitis
  • Condition of shock.

As the level of alaninotransferase during hepatitis depends on the floor

Russian scientists, examining 320 people, among which were both sick people and healthy (control groups), found out that in women with HBH, an alote of 78.6% of cases does not correspond to the severity of the disease. Some patients even registered the normal level Alaninotransferase.

In men, the number of cases of hepatitis, not accompanied by An excess of the concentration of this enzyme was only 21.4%, that is, the difference between the floors is 3.7 times. And even with approximately the same gravity of the illness, in women indicator was 1.5 times lower.

The female body has great potential to combat the pathology of the liver, so if the weak floor representative has obvious signs of the presence of "liver problems", then Analysis On Alaninotransferase is not enough - it may not be informative. You need at least to have a liver ultrasound.

In order to get a real picture of the liver work, you need to spend other liver samples, then you can more accurately say if there are a woman with this pathology or not. The representatives of the wonderful sex, the latent current of the HY has much more often, when symptoms of liver damage appear later, if there are severe, sometimes irreversible, changes. In addition, they are characterized by a more rapid restoration of the normal level of Alat after Botkin's disease, which is also associated with the physiological characteristics of the female organism.

All these factors need to be taken into account when examining men and women for hepatic pathologies.

The dependence of the level of alaninotransferase from the floor with viral hepatitis

Norma Alla With different types of hepatitis, it may increase in 20 or even 100 times. At the same time, the cause of this pathology (viruses, poisoning, hemolysis of erythrocytes) does not play roles.

  • In case of Botkin's disease An increase in this biochemical indicator may be observed before the appearance of jaundice and other clinical symptoms. Also Norma Alat in Blood may be increased some time after recovery, returning normally (Women are 31 units / l; Men are 45 U / L) in two or three weeks.
  • With "syringe" viral hepatitis , especially those who have chronic and protracted flow (HGH), this indicator can constantly fluctuate that in a smaller one, then in the most side. Sometimes it depends on the stage of the infectious process, and in some cases such jumps are difficult to explain.
  • Mechanical (obstructive) jaundice Also causes hoppy changes of the concentration of amala. With this pathology level Alaninotransferase In the blood can rise over 24 hours / l, and then, spontaneously return to the norm somewhere in two days.

If obstructive jaundice arose due to the primary liver cancer, then the concentration of alaninotransferase remains steadily high.

Features of the norms of Alat in pregnant women

A healthy woman has an alote rate during pregnancy and must coincide with the values ​​before conception. In cases where the amalate is increasing during pregnancy, it is possible to consider the causes that are not related to diseases:

  • course of intramuscular injection;
  • physical exertion, excessive for a pregnant woman;
  • Fastfood addiction;
  • uncontrollable reception of dietary supplement;
  • obesity;
  • Pressure of the fetus for biliary ways that prevents bile outflow.

Normalization of nutrition, moderation of physical activity, weight control and choleretic drugs normalize enzyme indicators.

The dependence of the level of Alat from age and other indicators

During the life of a person, the level of the content of Alat is changing. It is necessary to know to competently spend in biochemical analysis of blood to decipher Alat.

  • In healthy diligent newborn children, the alanine substransferase rate ranges from 10 to 17 units.
  • If the baby was born ahead of time, this indicator can be 13-26 units, and the level of this substance in the blood of such kids changes almost daily.
  • From the sixth day of life to six-month-old, the upper limit of the alaninotransferase indicator slightly increases and is 30 units. This is due to the fact that in the first six months, all biochemical mechanisms are gradually "launched" in the body, because the child adapts to existence outside the maternal womb.
  • From seven months before a year, this indicator ranges from 13-29 units. At this time, the indicators in boys and girls are not yet different.
  • From the year to 14 years, the concentration of Alaninotransferase in boys and girls are different. And in the female body it will be lower than in male. In the girls of preschool age, the concentration of 13-18 units will be considered the norm, and the boys have the upper limit of 22 units. This trend will persist all my life.

Alianinotransferase level in adults

  • Prior to reaching the 60-year-old age, the Norm of Alaninotransferase in men is an indicator of 10-45 units / l, while Alat is normal in women during this period is only 10-31 units.
  • The level of maintenance of this substance in the blood can only vary during pregnancy, and not all women. In some cases, it remains unchanged. If the future mothers have a slightly elevated level and is 35 units, this is not a reason for concern. The increase in the amalate during pregnancy is caused by the fact that the increased uterus can slightly press the bile ducts or a small beggar appeared in the biliary ways. It is not necessary to be afraid of such a situation - after childbirth, the uterus will decrease, and the indicators will come to normal. However, if an increase in the increase in the blood of blood during pregnancy continues, and the concentration of this substance reaches high numbers - additional surveys should be underway, as this may be due to a violation of the liver, kidney and heart.
  • When people "step over" the 60-year barrier, the norm of Alaninotransferase in the blood also changes. Alat is normal in men of this age ranges from 10 to 40 units, and for female representatives, it will be 10-28 units. At this level, the concentration of Alaninotransferase remains until the end of life.

However, not always the normal level in the blood of this substance says that the person is healthy. In some cases, even with severe pathologists of the liver and kidneys, the indicator does not change, especially it concerns representatives of weak gender. That is why isolated study Concentration This enzyme in the blood is assigned very rarely. Most often, other biochemical indicators are analyzed in parallel, which makes it much more accurate to obtain an idea of ​​the body's condition.

What is aspartaminotransferase (asat)

The endogenous aspartaminotransferase enzyme (ASAT) is responsible for the acceleration of ammonia from amino acids for subsequent processing in the urea cycle. Asaat is contained not only in the liver, but also in the heart muscle and brain, kidneys and spleen, lungs and pancreas. Thanks to the intracellular character of the synthesis, the ASAT is successfully used in the diagnosis of the state of myocardium and the liver. Using a biochemical blood test to AsaT and Alat, as well as their ratio, doctors manage to predict a heart attack before the emergence of basic symptoms.

AsaT is also used as a marker with differentiated diagnosis of a number of diseases:

  • Cirrhosis and hepatitis;
  • Metastases in the liver;
  • Jaundice of various origins.

If, according to the results of the study, high rates of amalam are much larger than the excess of the norm in AsaT is a characteristic sign of liver damage. If the AsaT is increased more than Alat, it should be considered a version of the death of myocardial cells. The excessive activity of the alaninotransferase is also possible during the reception of some drugs. Required astes and amalats are possible during pregnancy, renal failure or pyridoxine deficiency.

Where to donate liver samples in St. Petersburg

Any tests, including tests for liver enzymes Alat and Asat, you can pass in the modern medical center Diana. The clinic is located in St. Petersburg, next to the subway. We guarantee accurate results, sterility and confidentiality.

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