Legend: Lisa and Peter Bunochkina bought a one-room apartment with an area of 35 m 2, with loggia 4 m 2And the ceilings of 3 m, in the building of the 2000s built.
Larina marina drawing
Former owners lived here 10 years with repair from the developer (paper wallpapers, linoleum, bathroom with painted walls and a cafeter on the floor). Lisa and Petya want to update the interior, but intend to limit the modest repair in Scandinavian style. Windows and batteries will not change, but input and interior doors will put new ones.
Alone, buns are ready to make cleaning, simple disassembly, to carry out the straight garbage and paint the already covered walls and ceilings. For other works, I hire a brigade.
Step 1. We compile a preliminary list of works
At this stage, you need to record everything that you will do in the apartment (is it necessary to dismantle the old finish? Walls align? Point wallpaper or paint? Do you change the floor or not? And with the ceilings that ...?), As well as what experts you will need. List fix prices for services.
Lisa and Petya blinked prices in Moscow and Moscow region and got this:
Dismantling of the old finish:
- Remove the wallpaper (75 rubles per 1 m 2);
- dismantle the plinths in the entire apartment (30 rubles per stranded meter);
- Remove the old linoleum (60 rubles per 1 m 2);
- Remove the old whipping from the ceilings (120 rubles per 1 m 2);
- Remove the old paint from the walls in the bathroom (180 rubles per 1 m 2);
- knock down the old tile on the floor in the bathroom (140 rubles per 1 m 2);
- dismantle the sink and toilet in the bathroom (conservation to use them in the repair process and replace new at the very end) - 1250 rubles;
- Cast-iron bath leave and order a new acrylic insert in it - 1650 rubles for temporary disassembly;
- garbage collection - 4000 rubles.
If the house is more than 30 years old, there may be surprises at this stage - for example, after removing the tile, the bathroom will show a drowning partition that needs to be rebuilt, and after dismantling the floor will have to change both lags and so on.
Additional costs may arise at any time - the builders, materials or a favorite bed have suddenly rose; It took more money to deliver materials and furniture; I liked the road rug, etc.
Therefore B. Detect Be sure to lay 5-15% of the total cost Repair For unforeseen expenses.
Cost of repair work:
- Electrical work (adhesion under cables, installation of the panel, electrical layout, installation of sockets, chandeliers and switches) - from 1000 rubles per 1 m 2;
- Plumbing works - from 10,000 for the plumbing kit ("toilet + sink + bath" or "toilet + sink + shower", it also includes installation of additional pipes as needed, installation of mixers, additional waterproofing of the joints).
- Splash (climbing cracks, alignment) - from 300 rubles per 1 m 2(under the wallpaper, basic) up to 600 rubles per 1 m 2(geometrically accurate, under beacon);
- Wallpaper sticking (from 300 rubles per 1 m 2) or painting (from 900 rubles per 1 m 2);
- Installation of the ceiling cornice - from 250 rubles for the temporon meter;
- Laying tiles on the walls - from 1000 rubles per 1 m 2 (with grout);
- Plasterboard works (installation of boxes for communication, walls, etc.) - from 800 rubles per 1 m 2.
- Platkeeper ceiling - from 300 rubles (basic, under the color) to 600 rubles per 1 m 2 (if you want geometric accuracy);
- Ceiling finish - Painting from 300 rubles per 1 m 2 , tension - from 500 rubles per 1 m 2.
- Laying linoleum with insulation and substrate - from 150 rubles per 1 m 2, laminate or parquet board - from 500 rubles per 1 m 2, floor tiles - from 1000 rubles per 1 m 2(with grout);
- Installation of the plinth - from 150 rubles for the temporon meter.
- dismantling old doors - from 500 rubles per door;
- Installing new interior doors - from 2500 rubles per position;
- Installing the entrance door - from 3500 rubles.
Having consisted, the Bunochny family decided that:
- Install the dismantling of the old finish and the basic finish under the wallpaper (on the walls) and the plates of the ceiling under the plain;
- In the bathroom, in the kitchen and in the corridor on the floor there will be a tile, in the room - laminate;
- The tile in the bathroom on the walls will only reach the middle of the height, further - painting;
- A tiled apron will appear in the kitchen;
- In the room and in the kitchen, one wall will be placed accent wallpaper with a Scandinavian print, all other walls will become monophonic (wallpapers will be glued everywhere);
- Installing new doors and dismantling the olds will commission in the company;
- Professionals Nimuth on electric and sanitary work across the apartment and ask for plasterboard designs (to close the communications in the bathroom);
- In order to save on repair, paint the ceiling, ceiling plinths, batteries, walls in the bathroom and on the buns loggia will be (by pre-primer);
- On the loggia will make a summer office.
Step 2. We compile a list of building materials (with prices)
Lisa and Petya studied prices on large constructionarkets sites:
1. Universal plaque mix - 385 rubles / 25 kg / consumption 1 kg = 1 m 2.
2. Primer - 180 rubles / 5 liters / Consumption 1 liter = 10 m 2.
3. Accent wallpapers in the room (fliseline) - 1200 rubles Roll / 10 meters, width 53 cm.
4. Accent wallpapers for the kitchen (fliseline) - 1200 rubles Roll / 10 meters, width 53 cm.
5. Basic wallpapers (fliseline) - 1000 rubles Roll / 10 meters, width 53 cm.
6. Glue for fliselin wallpaper - 350 rubles Packaging, 50 m 2.
7. Plinth is outdoor for the entire apartment - 375 rubles, the length is 2 meters.
8. Plinth ceiling (baguette) - 400 rubles, a length of 2 meters.
9. Glue for ceiling plinth - 647 rubles of the bank by 30 m 2.
10. Paint for the ceiling and ceiling plinth - 1537 rubles for 2.5 liters / consumption 1 kg = 14 m 2.
11. Paint for walls in the bathroom and on the loggia - 1537 rubles for 2.5 liters / consumption 1 kg = 14 m 2.
12. Paint for radiators - 700 rubles of the bank.
13. Laminate - 1200 rubles for 2 m 2.
14. Polystyrene substrate for laminate - 600 rubles / 10 m 2.
15. Outdoor tiles for kitchen, corridor and bathroom - 800 rubles per 1 m 2.
16. Cabanchik type tile for kitchen apron and walls in the bathroom - 900 rubles per 1 m 2.
17. Tile glue - 135 rubles / 5 kg / consumption 0.8 kg = 1 m 2.
18. Grout - 320 rubles / 2 kg.
19. Interior doors 3 pieces (with accessories and platbands) - 3000 rubles each.
20. The entrance door is 16000 rubles.
21. Consumables, components (sockets, switches, cables, plumbing consumables, of necessity, brushes, work gloves) - 10,000 rubles.
22. Materials for plasterboard (drywall, observation hatch, guides) - 2000 rubles.
23. Mixers - from 3,000 to 4500 rubles (per piece; It is necessary for the apartment three: a kitchen; a kitchen mixer and a mixer with a bath or shower shower).
24. Heated towel rail - from 5000 rubles.
25. Acrylic insert in the bath - 4000 rubles (with installation).
Step 3. Make a list of furniture and equipment
Bunochkoms thought that they had to buy from furniture and technology, and they recorded it on a separate sheet (detailed calculations for furniture, light and accessories we do not, since the list of positions and their price are greatly dependent on taste and owner preferences).
Additionally, it is necessary to lay the amount on textiles, carpets and elements of the decor (paintings, posters, etc.) - these costs are also highly dependent on taste and from what you already have in stock at the time of moving.
Step 4. We make measurements for calculating the number of materials
Need: Roulette, ruler, pencil, notepad. Then the measurements are better to transfer to the program like Remplanner, Planer 5D or the like.
The square meter is the unit of calculation of costs in the estimate, and we must consider not only the living area of your apartment (floor area), but also the area of all other surfaces (walls and ceilings).
Square meters are considered the work of builders, as well as almost all materials. It seems that this is not like this: both we buy rolls, and paint - banks.
But it will be necessary to find out the consumption of the same paint or putty on 1 m 2, and in the case of wallpaper - calculate the area of the wall, which will cover 1 roll (with the consumption of accent wallpaper with the print, it is recommended to calculate in the number of bands). And buying everything better with a slight margin.
How to do measurements?
1. Draw in a notebook an approximate plan of the apartment.
2. Measure all the walls, simpleness and protrusions; Do not forget about the slopes of the windows, the windows, doorways, passages, niches, and so on. Everyone is recorded meticulously.
- The apartment can be height differences, if there are built-in mezzanine, linked communications, level ceilings, etc. This will affect the walls of the walls. And there may be small differences due to the design features: in one place the width of the room will be 3.5 m, and in another - 3.6 m.
- If the placement of the wrong shape (has more than four angles), break it onto the rectangles and count them separately, and then fold.
- If there is stupid or sharp corners in the room - break the room on rectangles + rectangular triangle.
Step 4. Play Exact Plans
On the computer create accurate drawings of the apartment, there will be several of them.
First Check: Finishing Plan
Thip the area of the ceiling and floor (they are most often equal) and each wall, multiplying its length to height. From the area of the walls, we subtract the area of windows and doorways. It is necessary to know how much the same twin needed and how much to pay for work - after all, the glass and the door of the brigade will not be covered and the walls will not be accumulated.
Larina marina drawing
As a result, the buns turned out the following data:
Room: Floor area and ceiling on 16.13 m 2, ceiling height 3 m, window opening area 2.25 m 2, total wall area - 49.38 m 2(less windows), the perimeter of the room (for the ceiling plinth) is 17.8 m; Perimeter of the room on the floor (for plinth) - 17 m.
Kitchen: Floor area and 9.8 m ceiling 2, ceiling height is 3 m, the area of the window loan (excluding the door to the loggia) - 2.25 m 2, area of two doorways 3.36 m 2, total wall area 32.85 m 2, the ceiling perimeter is 12.82 m, the perimeter on the floor is 11.2 m. The area of the apron (60 cm high, with an increase in the height of up to 80 cm above the slab, where the exhaust) is 1.764 m 2.
Sanusel : Area 4.85 m 2, room height 3 m, the total area of the walls is 24.99 m 2 (Square under the wall tile - 12 m 2), Perimeter at the top - 8.8 m.
Hallway: Floor area 5 m 2, the height of the room is 3 m, the total area of the walls minus door openings - 19.45 m 2, the ceiling perimeter is 8.98 m, the perimeter on the floor is 5.58 m.
Loggia: Floor area 4 m 2, ceilings height 3 m, wall area 18.15 m 2 (minus external glazing 5.37 m 2and inner windows between the loggia and the kitchen 2.25 m 2 ).
Next, depending on which work in the apartment is coming, take another 5-8 similar plans with different data.
Second drawing: dismantling plan. Partitions that need to be demolished. Recall that before demolishing some walls, make it in them and so on, make sure that your redevelopment is safe and legal. We wrote in detail about this in a separate article.
The third drawing: Installation plan. On it the shame of the partitions that need to be erected. Important: After the construction of new partitions, the measurement will need to be counted.
Fourth drawing: furniture arrangement plan. Observing the dimensions of the furniture, note that where it will stand. This is necessary for the planning plan of electricians and understanding, where and which zones will be (recreation area, storage area, dining area, etc.). At Bunochnyh, it turned out like this:
Larina marina drawing
Fifth drawing: Lighting group plan. For calculations on the upper light, consider the following lighting norms: per 1 kV. M should have 25 W, that is, 15-16 square meters room. meters - 375-400 W (4 light bulbs 100 W). It may be one chandelier or several lamps. Do not forget to note how light bulbs will turn on - from one switch or from several.
Plus add work lighting - lamp on the table; Evening - flying for reading or bedside lamps. It is important to consider and lighting for the wardrobe - it can be thought out independently or order along with a filling or built-in wardrobe.
Sixth drawing: electrical layout group plan. Think where it will be more convenient for you to charge the phone, and where to place a laptop or TV; Where you put an ironing board, and where to dry your hair with a hairdryer. Based on this and from the placed furniture, determine where to mount the sockets. Each wall should have a minimum of 2 outlets.
Seventh drawing: Outdoor plan. It should be noted on it, where what covers will be used and will the warm floor will be used, the plinths, threshings and height differences should be melted here.
The eighth drawing: Plan for the arrangement of doors and doorways. We indicate where there will be the doors, and where are just the moves (for example, you have sliding structures in the apartment), indicate the dimensions of the doorways (they may differ). Also on this scheme it is necessary to determine where the door will open - they should not be clinging for each other and interfere with the free passage around the apartment. Standard - the door opens with his right hand and on itself.
Step 6. Make up the estimate, in terms of refining prices
At this stage, we drive in Excel or Google to Google all the upcoming work, the costs of building materials, delivery, movers, etc.
The procedure for the cost of repairing an apartment is usually the following:
- Construction, assembly and finishing works - 40%;
- Materials - 25%;
- Furniture and equipment - 25%;
- Designer project - 5%;
- Unforeseen expenses - at least 5% (but better 10-15% of the cost of "work + materials + furniture").
Lisa and Petya will eventually spend 26,800 rubles for dismantling work, 206,854 rubles - to finishing (taking into account the work of electricians and plumbers), 151677 rubles - on materials. Approximately in the same amount will cost the purchase of furniture and technology (they laid 150 thousand). In total, the repairs will fall out in the amount of about 615,000 rubles (taking into account the 15% backlash for transport and unforeseen expenses).
Cost of buns can be downloaded here: It is convenient to use it as a sample of estimates.
And you can, I will not count all this myself?
Yes, you can. Many Stroybrigad have a professional consumer repairs service for the repair of apartments that everything will measure and calculates for you (usually it costs about 5-10% of the cost of construction work, in the "expensive" companies, the estimate of the estimates is included in the country's total price). You can also choose the laminate, tile and wallpaper and throw out the articula and prices - it will make it in the calculation table.
Estrase from designers
Also estimates (and subsequent configuration) make the design bureau is the necessary part of the design. If the budget allows you to order a repair project, the designer decision plus a detailed estimate (and a complete set, that is, the service of the set of all building materials and furniture) in such a bureau. In this case, you will need to call the maximum amount that you are willing to spend on the repair, and ask the designer to fit into it.
Tatyana Turtle, head of studio TB.Design:
The most important thing is to rate the maximum budget in advance and think how much you can surpass it - for example, to take someone from someone, take a loan and so on. The fact is that due to the lack of experience, people are usually inclined to underestimate the cost of repair - in reality it is almost always higher. Watch your limit to the designer and ask to work within the budget. He will make both the project and the estimate. Most often, designers make estimates common, from the calculation of all costs per 1 square meter of living space. For example, the estimate for the repair of the class "Economy" from the designer studio would look like this.
Estimation for repairs from Design Bureau - Sample
Authors: Team Yandex. Applyingness. Illustrator: Kseniastylik.
I spent on repair one and a half times more money and time than expected.
did repair without a estimate
I did repairs without a estimate: I thought that once the brigadier announced the amount of 10 thousand rubles per square meter, then it will be. I have never been mistaken in my life.
After the construction dust was smaller, I decided to figure out what was wrong and how it was necessary to do in the mind, so I turned to a specialist for the compilation of the estimate.
Better late than never. But now I can share the knowledge gained with you.
What is estrase
Estimation is a document in which the project costs are calculated on the expenditure: on work, building materials, economic needs, acquisition of components and other.
When the estimate is made
The estimate is up to the start of repair. To competently draw up the estimate, accurate indoor details are needed: the length of the walls, the height of the ceilings, the location of the windows etc . At first, I considered everything according to the plan of BTI, and the scheme asked to draw a friend-architect. To our amazement, the plan turned out to be inaccurate: one of the walls on the plan was a little longer than in life.
Nasytkovka noted the merchant company, from which I ordered the kitchen. For measurements, he used high-precision laser equipment, and plans drawn in a special program that controls the result and will not allow mistakes in the calculations.
Measurements are made quickly, and the result can be obtained within a few days. I received detailed drawings, where not only the lengths, the floor area, but also the walls of the walls, which are very difficult to calculate independently due to Window and doors.
Such a service on average costs 5000 Р. But it will simplify the calculation of the required amount of materials and will avoid errors. For example, I saved me from extra spending: I already planned to book equipment, which would As a result, I did not fit where I planned according to the plan of BTI.
Note that the dimensions before dismantling, after dismantling and after draft work they differ. It is important for ordering everything that is planned to fit into the room: furniture, kitchen, doors, built-in wardrobes. Error even in a centimeter here matters. For example, the shelves were squeezed and polished the sandpaper plastic inserts for light: due to The layer of plaster The space between the walls was a pair of centimeters less.
What is the estimate
Estrase lies at the intersection of the interests of the customer and the artist. The customer wants to spend on repairs as little as possible, and the Contractor earn as much as possible.
Why it is important to properly compile and arrange the estimate. Without a estimate, you like the customer less arguments to protect your budget: you may impose additional work or take money for not even done. But even the perfect estimate may not save from additional spending. But it will help to decide, these spending are reasonable or not.
If you have entered into an agreement with a construction company, you can ask to explain why you require more money than indicated in the estimate. They are obliged to tell you why additional works are needed.
The estimate determines the technology of work performed. Imagine: Brigadier calls you and requires money. He said that she had to put the walls on another technique, and he did not buy materials and Plumbus at his own expense.
If correctly consisted of the estimate and agreed with the representative of the company, you can say: "You did not agree with me spending, a change in the technical process and did not warn about additional work. Therefore, I can't confirm, these spending are reasonable or not. And there was no plumbus in the estimate at all - I do not understand why he needed, and I will not pay for him. "
We know everything about real estate
We disassemble complex situations with the purchase and sale of housing, tell about the laws that relate to property owners
Tasks of estimates
That's what tasks do estimate.
Fixes the volume and cost of work. The artist will not suddenly increase the cost of work or attribute new without discussion with the customer. Estrase protects the customer from sudden, unfounded changes in the cost of repair.
Assesses the cost of materials. Serves as a guide for procurement and helps not spend extra money.
Gives legal guarantees. Based on the estimates of the courts in disputes between the customer and the performer make decisions.
Gives a control tool. By definition, you can determine what is happening on the object. It is easy to compare what is done on the fact.
Types of estimates and methods for calculating
There are many different estimates in professional construction, each with its requirements and features. But repairs in the apartment will not inspect the harsh inspection, so it can be limited to the following species.
Estimated on work. Preliminary estimates on work - price tag for brigade services. It allows you to evaluate what should be done and how much it will cost. The final estimate of work is reported for everything that was done by a brigade on the facility.
Estimated on materials. Accurately predict prices in stores is impossible: they are constantly changing. TO the same The final costs depend on your choice of parquet, wallpaper, tiles. Therefore, the preliminary estimate for materials only serves as a price guideline. The final estimate of the materials is essentially the sum of all checks.
How to choose the optimal method of calculating the estimate. It is impossible to describe the "standard" estimate. How many builders are as much as much. Everyone does the way it is more convenient and more familiar. Some constitute estimates by the "Bald" method: In such estimates, dismantling can easily stand after installation.
The most convenient option for the customer is to ask the estimate in chronology. In other words, that the builder puts work in the estimate in the order of their planned sequence.
Such estimates reduces uncertainty and anxiety: the customer starts at least Approximately to imagine the course of work without becoming a member. If the customer sees that work from the end of the list for some reason Performed now, it may ask, with which the change of plans is connected. It helps track the problem and do not grow into loss.
When the customer understands the sequence of work, it is easier for it to plan the payment and supply of materials to the builder. The builder is also convenient - he does not need to be rebuilt and something significantly change in their work. It performs work consistently by estimates.
It happens that the builders resist and ask why such an estimate is needed. To do this, you can talk a magic phrase: "I need to plan time and money so that you have no downtime and I have not delayed payment."
The preparation of the chronological estimate occupies a little longer. Many builders are difficult to divide work on chronology: they are accustomed to merge several. For example, dismantling and sticking new wallpapers can write how to "make a wallpaper". We will have to explain this approach: say that this will allow you to quickly check the course of work and pay for the made.
Some works can go in parallel, as the repair will do several people. The builder may say that the estimate in chronological order will not work. In this case, it is necessary to say that the work should be placed as if it would do one person.
In addition to the estimates in chronology, several more calculation methods can be distinguished.
In stages. Separate estimates are on dismantling, installation, rough and finishing finish. This is the most popular method of calculation, as it allows you to estimate the state of the object after each stage and correctly adjust the estimate.
All adjust the estimates on average by 20% - this is normal. For example, after dismantling old wallpaper, it turned out that the wall lifts and it needs to be re-align. Costs for additional materials will be consistent with the customer and will be submitted to the installation.
On rooms. Suitable if you do repair not in the entire apartment. Or, on the contrary, if there are too many rooms at the facility and it is easy to get confused, which other materials are needed.
But in such a mixture there may be a catch. When you make up easy room, it is easy to buy extra materials. For example, you plan to paint the ceiling and write in the estimate of each room on the bucket of paint. In the life of one bucket can be enough for several rooms. More paint is more profitable to buy large volumes - and if you take small containers, it can be more expensive.
By types of work. Separate estimates for walls, electricians, plumbing and so on. Such estimates are some of the most common, but the customer is difficult to track the remnants of materials and the stroke of the repair.
Who is authorized to do the estimate
A better customer and contractor should be done together. This is in the interests of both sides.
If you hire a brigade, the brigadier will be the estimate and agrees it with you. If the company has ordered, the estimate, most likely, will be a professional surprise. In any case, control its execution you will be together with the contractor.
All changes in the estate brigadier makes only with customer's approval. If materials and works are needed that are not laid in the estimate, the brigadier must stop the repair, call the customer and get its consent.
For example, when planned replacement, the door was found that the wall between the rooms will collapse at any time. A good brigadier will invite you to an object and agrees the changes in the estimate. Bad - will strengthen the wall, and then it will argue and demand payment. If the work not laid down in the estimate, spent without your knowledge, you have the right not to pay for them.
Require checks on all purchases, check the check with the estimate and ask the brigadier to explain the meaning of purchases. If you do not trust the handwritten checks from the markets, ask the Brigadier to buy materials not in the construction markets, but in large network stores: they are printed in them and fake them almost impossible. Prices in stores can be both higher and lower than in the markets. But even a major building supermarket will be modest than the market.
Basic principles of creating estimates
Before starting work, the customer must approve the customer, and the performer. All changes in the estimate should be coordinated with the customer.
Be sure to lay an amount for unforeseen expenses. It is usually 30% of the planned estimate. In my case it turned out that the walls need to be dismantled and erected from scratch. This is not only extra spending on work and materials, but also for shipping from the warehouse and garbage collection. For me, these spending have become an unpleasant surprise, since I have not laid money on them.
Than more accommodation - the smaller the discrepancies will arise in the process. It is better to break the work "bring the walls in order" into smaller tasks: "Clean the old wallpaper", "level the walls", "prepare the walls to paint" and "Bloom the Wallpaper".
Properly named works - this is half the estimate
Helps compile estimates
How many builders, so many formulations of work - each formulates work as you used or got into its documents.
One I. same Working from different builders may be called differently and include different actions. For example, in the notion of "wall alignment", each builder will invest its submission depending on the situation. This complicates life to customers and leads to misunderstanding.
Incorrectly formulated task reduces the effectiveness of control, control, acceptance. Errors grow in calculating the required amount of materials and payment, increases the confusion.
I will tell you how to determine correctly and incorrectly formulated work.
In one cell table, there may be only works that have common materials. Ideally - each work has its own cell.
Wrong: Installation of the suspended ceiling, painting.
Correctly: Installation of the suspended ceiling is one job, painting the suspended ceiling is another.
You can not mix work that have different units of measurement.
Wrong: Wallpaper sticking, installation of ceiling plinths.
Correctly: Wallpaper sticking is one job (because it is considered in square meters), the installation of plinths is different (because it is considered in the route meters).
Builders react to such a request wary. They don't like detail due to The fact that the cost of their work is easier to compare with competitors. Builders are accustomed to their own formulations and believe that the detail increases their load.
But the builders are quick and happy to rebuild if you agree that you will pay once a week "for completed lines in the estimate." Then they are interested in formulating work and place them in different lines so to receive payment regularly. Because the builder, like anyone, appreciates the stability and regularity of payment.
How the estimate is drawn up
Estrase is a simple table. In the simplest embodiment, it contains the following columns: name, unit of measurement, quantity, price and amount. Well, if there is a "discount" column - this will allow you to specify a discount not for the entire estimation, but on a specific work. It will be easier to understand what exactly you did cheaper. If you give a discount on the whole estimate - it is not clear, will it act a discount in case Some Works will have to add it to it and the estimate will expand.
It is not so important how specifically it is framed and in what program. It is important that the customer and the performer understand the estimate equally.
The easiest way to make the estimate on the finished pattern.
Form. Many construction sites offer download form form. This is usually a text document in the Word. It is better not to count the estimate in this document - the table in the Word will not calculate the amount for you - and download the template for exhel or Google Tables .
Sample estimates for construction work. We prepared a sample of estimates in Google tables . To work with it, copy the document yourself.
Programs for compiling and filling estimates
For repair in the apartment there will be enough table in Excele or Google-documents . You can search for specialized services on requests "Estimation for online repairs" or "Repair Calculator".
On the Internet there are many paid programs for compiling estimation: " Grand Scratch "," Estrase-Ru "," 1C: Estimate. " Such programs are used for estimates for residential buildings, bridges, stadiums and similar objects where you need to document every little thing in detail. Learning to work with these programs will take you more time than the repair itself. For example, in such programs there is no notion to "break the wallpaper". Instead, it uses the term "applying paper canvases".
If you have never accounted for estimates, try the site. SMETUS-KOM. "Or" flexible estimate "- they are more friendly to beginners.
Basic errors in drawing up estimates
It is impossible to take into account all the nuances, if you make a estimate yourself and have never been engaged before. Here are the basic things about which forget most often.
Delivery and rise to the floor. An article of expenses about which is forgotten most often. Typically, stores deliver building materials only before the entrance. Behind the rise in the apartment will have to pay either by loaders or builders. I live on the eighth floor in the house without a freight elevator and quietly cried from rates of movers every time the order was not placed in a close cabin cabin.
Taking out the trash. Eating the construction trash to the usual garbage will not work - you will have to order a container. The container on 3 tons will not always work outloaded by 3 tons: drivers are forbidden to load the container above the sides. I had to order several cars, although I calculated only one.
Before repairs, ask a brigadier or a senior builder, how much about the garbage removal at the end of work. Calculate the final cost of garbage removal is difficult. Lay on this minimum 10 000-15 000 Рadditionally. If there is no elevator in the house - the price will increase.
Entrance door. After repair, many change locks and upholstery doors. These spending rarely include in the estimate, and I also did not earn it.
Paint. A widespread error is to lay in the estimate only one layer of paint, and not two. I had to not only pay twice as much as planned, but also to upset for another delivery.
Counters. Repair - a good reason to change the counters. I forgot that it is worth putting in the estimate not only the value of the instruments themselves, but also the installation with the check.
Communications. Sometimes, to implement the conceived, you have to carry out general communications. For example, I needed to transfer risers with hot and cold water. I planned that this will make the plumber of the brigadier. But it turned out that only Plumbers from Dhaz have the right to engage in universal communications. In the absence of competitors, they launched the price of 35,000 Р.
Permissible exceed the figures specified in the estimate
Estrase is an approximate plan, and repair never goes according to plan. Change the estimate in the course of repair is normal. The main thing is that all changes in the estimate in advance are in advance with the customer and were argued. If it is possible - enter into additional agreements for exiting workflow.
Some brigadiers write prices with a margin. For example, in the estimate counted parquet at a price of 2500 Р, and bought it for 2000 Р. Or specifically considered the scope of work more than necessary to have a reserve of funds for unforeseen expenses. This is acceptable if the difference then return the customer, and not to put in his pocket.
How to make a estimate
Repair is pain. IN Some kind moment I just closed my eyes and gave the brigadier everything he asks if only This quickly ended. I was knocked out of the rut unplanned costs, and due to nerves and hurry I accepted several incorrect solutions.
That's what I understood now:
- Before repairing repair, it is necessary to invite the measurer. You can't trust the old plans of the apartment.
- Repair without a estimate - a shot on his knee.
- Is always something It will go wrong, and it is worth postponing 20% over the estimates. If suddenly everything goes as it should - 20% will become a pleasant bonus for the purchase of furniture.
- If you are not a builder, it is difficult to independently make an accurate estimate, it will be only an approximate alignment, which will have to rule with the brigadier.
- It is better to insist that the brigadier agrees with you all changes in the estimate than to swear over a pack of sudden checks.
- Ordering furniture and technique is better after the fines. Will be offended if something will not fit due to Couple centimeters putty.
- Even if the repair is delayed and you have spent more than planned, do not make solutions to the tricks and nerves. They will bring even more problems.
Estimation for work - sample, form and example of compilationEstimates
(Votes: 18, Rating: 4)
Compilation and subsequent filling of the estimate is perfect deservedly considered the most important stage of any construction or repair work. In most cases, the design of the estimated documentation completes the design of a building or structure. In the case of small amounts of work, for example, repair or finishing, when the project is not developed, the estimate is also necessary. This is explained by the fact that it serves as initial information to develop a variety of accompanying documents related to the effective organization of documents, in particular, the calendar plan for performing work and the schedule for the supply of necessary materials and mechanisms.
Blank and sample estimates for work
In essence, the document under consideration consists of two parts:
- The calculation of direct costs, which are determined on the basis of the prices of 2001 and are transferred to current prices by multiplying the appropriate rise in the appropriation, which is set quarterly. Direct costs consist of the following items:
- Cost of materials;
- the main zp workers;
- The cost of Um (operation of machines and mechanisms necessary for the performance of work), including ZP machines;
- Calculation of overhead and estimated profits made taking into account the requirements of the standards currently operating at the time of registration.
The disadvantage of this method is that the 2001 rates applied when using it are often not taken into account the realities of today, since at the time of the preparation of many technologies and materials simply did not exist. However, when the budget objects and most private major buildings are alternatives, the base-index method does not exist today.
How to make a set to work
As an example of a simplified form of estimates to repair the room, you can bring such a table.
No. p / p
Name of works
Pricing for units.
The cost of work
17 680 =.
Dismantling balcony doors
1 200 =.
Construction of partitions from foam blocks
34 320 =.
Plaster partitions and walls
39 600 =.
Putty, primer and painting plastered surfaces
35 200 =.
Installation of balcony doors
2 800 =.
Stuccoing of door and window slopes
4 320 =.
Putty, primer and coloring of window and door slopes
3 960 =.
In total by estimates
139 080 =.
The importance of competent compilation and design of the estimate
As already noted, the completion of the estimate allows not only to obtain an approximate amount into which the construction will cost or perform a certain amount of work. This value is necessary to determine the contract price of the object or the stage of work, and both the customer or an investor and the contractor, that is, the direct manufacturer.
But in addition to this direct functional purpose, competent and patterns, the design of the estimate will allow planning work in such a way that they are produced as quickly as possible and for a smaller price. In addition, the estimate also helps to determine the need for the necessary materials, which, in combination with the calendar plan for the production of work, will develop a schedule for their supply.
The main tasks of the estimates
The development and filling of the estimate allows you to solve three of the most important tasks that are always standing in front of any contractor and the customer:
- Determination of the cost of construction or carrying out any work. In modern conditions, the estimated price is the most important parameter, vital for all participants in the building process. The customer is not interested not to overpay, but the contractor is to get a worthy reward for work. A competently composed estimate allows you to take into account the wishes of both sides and get a suggestive amount;
- Development of a calendar plan. The deadlines for the construction of a building or carrying out any work is often submitted for the customer no less important than their cost. From this depends on timely delivery of the object and, naturally, receiving remuneration, possibly with a premium. Estimation for work performed by sample provides builders with all the necessary information for the development of a calendar plan;
- Development of materials delivery schedule. With a competent filling of the estimates, the need for materials and mechanisms becomes clear that, in combination with the calendar plan, it allows you to draw up a document - a document delivery schedule for uninterrupted work. Effectively working construction organizations do not produce procurement of materials immediately to the entire object - it simply freezes the money that is much more efficient to spend on something more important at the moment, and also requires considerable costs of warehousing, etc. Also extremely disadvantageous any downtime and workers, which is fraught with no less serious additional costs.
As a result, we can say the following: the design of the estimates allows not only to understand the cost of construction or a separate stage of work, but also effectively plan their implementation.
Basic-index method of compiling and filling estimates
There are several different methods for forming estimated cost. When erecting large objects when filling up the estimate occurs within the framework of the project development, a basic-index method is almost always used. In this case, estimated standards 2001 and translation indexes are used to calculate.
Simplified form of estimates
It is often quite often, especially when construction or repair is performed in charge or in small objects, a simpler form blank is used, which consists only of direct costs. It contains the list of work and rates for them, which can be divided into the same components as in the version described above: the workshop of the workers, the cost of materials and, if necessary, the costs of machines and mechanisms. In this case, the form form after its design and fill looks as shown in the following photo:
When compiling and filling out such a simplified version of the estimate, the contractor's profit is established on the basis of its negotiations with the customer or investor construction.
Form of object estimates for work
Frequently often, especially when erecting large objects, several so-called local estimates are made up immediately, that is, individual calculations for each type of work performed. In this case, to obtain a total cost of construction, they are combined into a common object estimate, the sample of the form of which is shown in the following photo.
The compilation and filling of the object estimate allows you to minimize all the information about the object under construction, even when the individual stages of its construction are performed by various contractors. Often, local estimates are also calculated by them. Therefore, the generalization of all disparate data is extremely important for any customer or investor.
Programs for compiling and filling estimates
Currently, there are many programs that are used in the preparation of estimates. They can be divided into two groups with some sharing:
Free. Are posted on the network on thematic resources. Are freely available.
Professional. Apply to work by specialists. To use, it is necessary to purchase a service distribution.
In the first case, there is no particular need to describe programs, as they appear almost constantly, while having similar parameters:
- the ability to perform the most simple calculations;
- lack of updating regulatory bases (if they are present at all);
- Minimum functionality.
Professional estimated programs are used much more active, since without them it is almost impossible to compile high-quality documentation on how large object. The most popular products are currently the following:
According to experts, the widespread estimate program. Its advantages are the ability to automate the entire complex of estimated work, the efficiency of making changes to the regulatory framework and efficient technical support of the product.
The only program that actually competes with the Grand estimate described above. The main advantage of the product is the simplicity of use that allows you to work with it without possessing professional knowledge of the estimator.
1C: Contractor (or 1C: Construction Organization Management)
These programs are not purely estimated. However, they are quite popular due to the fact that 1C is used to conduct accounting on the overwhelming majority of Russia's enterprises, including construction. The software products under consideration help compile the necessary estimate documentation, their integration is performed as a bonus into a single system of managing the work of the company.
Simple in mastering and using a program that has quite serious functionality. Used not so often, compared with the Grand estimate and estimates.
WinSmette, Rick and Bag
Software products, whose popularity peak is in the past. However, a certain amount of professional surrenders continue to be used, which is explained by a number of undoubted advantages: a wide functionality, editing capabilities, adjustments, etc.
Basic errors in drawing up estimates
There are several basic types of errors that are found in the preparation and design of the estimate in practice. The most typical are the following:
Error 1. Insufficient detail or excessive integrapion of estimates. Any competently composed estimate must necessarily contain a complete list and volumes of work performed and, accordingly, rates for them. In practice, it is often customer and contractor, finding out that the price level arranges both parties, agree on the cost of the stage of work, for example, repair of one room. As a result, in fact, the situation is obtained when the actual amount of any work does not coincide with the initially intended. At the exit - a conflict situation, since it is not clear how to evaluate the rise or cheapening of work;
Error 2. Inaccurate volume accounting. The basis for the estimate for construction must be competently and precisely compiled statement of volumes, in the case of repair - a defective statement. In both situations, the result of the design of the estimate depends on the correctness of their compilation. The error first can lead to a fairly serious distortion of the final value of the calculation, since in most cases there is multiplication to various indices and rates, so the magnitude of the error is increasing all the time;
Error 3. The incorrect application of the rates contained in GESNN and the techs. One of the main problems of the basic-index method, the most common in real life, which was mentioned above is the inconsistency of the available types of works that are found in practice. Therefore, it is quite often necessary to use the available rates "in relation to". This is a special term invented by repetitions for a similar situation. The larger when the estimates are filled with rates "in relation to", the greater the likelihood that the final figure will be incorrect. Naturally, it is worth considering the fact that customers try to use low "applied" rates, and contractors, on the contrary, the most profitable.
In any case, the preparation and design of the estimates should be considered important and extremely necessary in modern conditions the preparatory phase of any construction. Its fulfillment is better to entrust professional and prepared fertilizers, which will make not only the cost of work is optimal for the customer and contractor, but also to organize their effective implementation in the shortest possible time and with the minimum possible costs.
Let's help make a estimate
Before repaid repair, make up the estimate. It indicates all expenses: the cost of work, materials, additional services. We understand how to make it yourself and what to look at the estimate from the repair company.
Why do you need estimate
The owners are invited by masters, they call the cost per square meter. It seems that everything is simple: the rubles could be multiplied by meters, received the final amount. The contract concluded, started repair, and began: it turned out more work here, there were still materials there. The amount rose twice.
So that this does not happen, make up an accurate estimate. It helps:
Secure the volume and cost of work
Determine the quantity and cost of materials
Plant budget with a reasonable stock
Control the course of repair
If you agree on the estimate with the brigade before starting repair, there will be less unplanned spending in the process. So, you will not have to go into a hard savings mode or make a loan to complete the started.
What they write in the estimate
There are different estimates. Only works in some of the works, the sheet with materials add to others. It depends on who constitutes the estimate: one option can be accepted in the company, a private master - another. The owner of the apartment, which himself calculates the cost of future repairs, is also its idea of this document.
In the estimates for the apartment repair usually fix:
Surface Square: Walls, Paul, Ceiling
Units of Measurement: Square and Standard Meters, Pieces
Volume and cost of work
The data is collected in the table.
Sometimes in the estimate prescribe the timing of work. This is a rarity: usually it is used only to calculate costs, and the time frame is fixed in the contract.
If the estimet consider the costs of materials, use the same table as for work. Press the names, units of measurement, the price per unit, the required number and the final value. But it happens more often: the customer is called an approximate amount before starting repair, and the invoice is provided after signing the contract.
The estimate can be made up or invite the measurer from the repair company. Consider both options.
How to make a estimate yourself
Create estimates independently stands in two cases.
You want to know how much to postpone on the finish. As a rule, repair is waged for a long time - the estimate from the repair company will lose relevance. Calculations will help to understand how much money is needed.
You hire private craftsmen. It happens that the brigadier evaluates the cost of "on the eye" or calls an approximate amount per square meter. This forecast is rarely coming true. It is better to make the estimate and coordinate it with the brigade.
The estimate is made up in several stages.
To make a estimate, the apartment is measured. Measure the lengths of the walls, the height of the ceilings, the square of door and window openings. These parameters are fixed on paper: they will be needed to calculate.
According to the plans from BTI estimate does not make up. These drawings are inaccurate: windows and doors are not there, the length of the walls and the height of the ceilings is different. It is better to double-check the materials enough.
Then they consider the fields of the floor, walls, ceilings. For rectangular surfaces, the formula s = a * b is used. For example, to calculate the area of the wall, you need to multiply it to the height.
The surfaces of the complex shape are broken into several simple figures, calculates for them and fold what happened. If the wall has a window or door opening, their areas are calculated and subtracted from the surface area.
Room parameters in estimate
List of works
When with the squares and perimeters finished, decide what exactly needs to be done in the apartment. To do this, estimate its condition and their wishes.
The accurate list of works will help to make a foreman. If you do not yet appeal to the masters, read about the sequence of actions when repairing the apartment. So you will receive an idea of which work to be included in the estimate.
The list of works is fixed in the table. Suitable Excel or Google Documents.
Usually work is grouped by premises and finishing stages. For example, a sheet for the living room is distinguished: it considers the cost of work only for this room. Make up lists of work on dismantling, roughing and finishing, electrical installation, installation of plumbing.
The estimate is needed. If you write jobs without breaking over time or stages, control the course of repair will be difficult.
Calculation of quantity and cost
It remains to be in the table of the unit of measurement, prices and the necessary scope of work.
Units of measurement for work serve square and power meters, pieces. Square meters are measured by the surface finishing: plaster and putting out walls, floor screed, floating wallpaper, laminate laying. Ravor meters use to measure work with long objects: wires, plinths, slopes. In pieces measured the installation of lamps, plumbing.
To find out job prices, see the rates of masters from the Internet or ask those who order the finish.
If the materials include materials, they are considered based on measurements and consumption. Each one in its own way: mixes - bags or kilograms, paint - cans or liters, wallpaper - rolls, laminate - packs.
To calculate the cost of materials, you need to go shopping, watch websites or Polystay catalogs. When decide what you like, fix the units of measurement and cost. Calculate how many materials need to finish the apartment, and multiply the cost of the unit of measurement.
Materials are usually bought with a reserve of 10-15%. Its includes in the estimate.
The final cost is considered as follows: the volume of works or the number of materials for the cost are multiplied, then the numbers obtained are folded.
Additional costs and stock
During repairs, money goes not only to the finishing itself. Lent in the estimate:
Replace communications and counters
Repair of the entrance door, shift locks
During the repair, surprises often happen: they take wallpaper - put off the putty, stew the kitchen - suddenly decide to add sockets. Therefore, the final budget is the amount in the estimate and 15-25% on top.
How to check the estimate from the repair company
If you plan to repair in the near future, order the estimate in the repair company. An employee will arrive, will measure, gather the data in the table and send it to you. Usually this service is provided for free, but some companies take from 1,000 to 5,000 rubles.
The estimate of the company does not need to be unconditionally trusted - there are errors in them. It may be the wrong surface area, missed work, incorrect calculations or duplicate lines. To check the reliability of the estimate, you will have to go through several stages.
Order 2-3 estimates in different companies. Compare them with each other: inconsistencies will indicate the shortcomings.
Estimate the calculation details. In the estimate, all the works that you order in the company should be painted. Bad, if they are combined: for example, instead of primer, plaster and putty walls are written "Alignment of walls". Such estimates do not provide ideas about the list of work and grow in the repair process.
Search for duplicate lines and skipping. Sometimes the estimates are deliberately doing more or cheaper to put the difference in his pocket or attract the customer cheap. Look in the definition of duplicate items. Compare it with the estimates of other companies: you may find missing work.
Check the calculations. Recalcute the area of premises, the cost of individual works and the final amounts. Usually, the estimates are in specialized programs or spreadsheets, but errors in the calculations are still found.
If the estimate caused questions, set them a specialist who was. He will tell why he included in the list of these works, where did the numbers come from how to have repair without loss of quality.
A person who is first repairs an apartment, it is difficult to check the estimate. There are several companies that check the estimates - consult them if you are not sure about your own.
Planning an apartment repair?
Get a discount up to 20% of the "Masters of Repair". To activate the proposal, name the Domklik code in a conversation with the operator.
Consider how to read the estimates, on the example. Estimated on the installation of the split system (table in Figure below) contains 13 graph. There are other types of blanks discharged by the number of graph. But the principle is similar everywhere and information in the graphs is similar. Text position numbers below match the numbers in the image of the estimate of the estimate. An example of estimates for installation is compiled for this article and is not attached to any particular object.
1. At the top on the left there is a block - "coordinated." It is prescribed in it. He who performs work. Indicates the organization and data of the head. It also puts his signature and print.
2. At the top on the right there is a block - "Approve", containing the position, surname, initials and signature of the customer's head. The "Approve" block also puts the seal.
3. The name of the construction site is the place of performance. In one building, several parts of work can be combined.
4. Damage number. According to regulatory documents, such a numbering procedure is adopted:
- The first 2 numbers are the number of the consolidated estimated calculation;
- The second and third is the line number in its section;
- The third and fourth is the estimate number in this object estimated calculation.
In the example, the estimate number is not delivered. It is not included in any documentation.
5. Name of the object, works and costs. Description of work with the name and address of the facility.
6. Base. Based on what was the estimate formed? This may be a defective statement, drawing, technical task. Indicate, for example, the technical task.
7. Estimated cost of work. The amount of estimates on the installation works registered in thousands of rubles. An indication of the amount in thousands of rubles is regulated by MDS 81-35.2001.
8. Funds for labor payment. How much should you pay the workers theoretically?
9. Regulatory labor intensity. The sum of man-hours is excluding downtime necessary to perform work.
10. Justification of the estimated value. The estimate of the example is drawn up in the current (forecast) prices for the first quarter of 2018 (but there is a monthly indexation). All rates are recorded in 2001 prices, and then with the help of coefficients are translated in the price of the present period. This method is called basic-index.
Estimated to build at home and purchase of a plot
Estimation on the construction of the house begins with the accounting of expenses for the purchase of a plot. Currently, there are only two legitimate ways to acquire a plot of land in the property: to buy from the previous owner or redeem from state or municipal property.
Buy plot of land from the private owner is much easier. It does not require a lot of time. However, it can be significantly higher than that of an equivalent site in the event of a repurchase from state ownership.
There is a theoretical opportunity to get a plot of land from state ownership for free. However, the number of people with this legitimate right is negligible.
To buy a land plot of the owner, it is necessary to conclude a written contract of sale in accordance with the requirements set forth in § 7 of chapter 30 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (art. Art. 549-552, 554-557).
The contract requires the following conditions:
- The subject of the contract (clearly indicate the data that establishes the compliance of the land plot to be: land category, including the target, area of the territory);
- The price of the contract of sale agreed by both parties.
After agreeing all the details of the contract of sale and its signing, it is necessary to issue state registration of the transfer of land ownership.
To do this, apply to the appropriate authority of the Justice at the location of the acquired area, submitting the following documents:
- registration application;
- receipt of payment of registration;
- contract of sale;
- Documents certifying the identity of the buyer;
- Cadastral plan.
The establishment of justice is considering adopted documents and within a month issues a decision on state registration.
The Justice authority puts marks on all the guidelines and after that it issues a certificate of state registration of ownership of the land plot. This is completed on this procedure for the acquisition of the land plot.
It is much more difficult to deal with the redemption of a plot from state ownership. According to the law, the land plot intended for construction can go to private property only as a result of auction (auction).
The acquisition of land is carried out in the following order:
- In local authorities, a statement is applied to provide land plot for the construction of a residential building;
- In a special licensed organization, the topographic plan of this section is ordered;
- After receiving the cutting from the topographic plan, an application is applied to determine the lack of burdens regarding this area;
- When all of the above documents are collected, an application is submitted about the absence (or presence) of ban prohibitions in this area;
- The entire package of documents is submitted to local executive authorities or self-government for final decision.
Based on the submitted documents, local governments decide on the auction, the subject of which is the right to ownership of the land plot.
The auction is held within a month after deciding on its conduct. If, besides the initiator of the auction, no one has expressed any desire to participate, the applicant has the right to redeem the land plot by paying its nominal value.
The protocol of the results of the auction serves as the basis for registration of the contract for the sale of land plot. In practice, there is a lease agreement for a period of three years between the winner of the auction and the local authority. During this time, the developer is obliged to build the structure according to the target destination of the site. Only after that, the site is finally transferred to the owner in private ownership.
Approximate costs of purchasing a plot. The size of state duties on various actions against land is small. But most of the events for the design of land ownership are conducted by licensed firms. They charge for services according to their own price lists.
Proper compilation of estimates
We make the estimate correctly!
In this article, we will consider with you an important question: how to make a estimate. What is the estimate?
Estimation of expenses is a financial document that includes the prices of all work performed and the list of materials and tools used in construction. In the estimation estimates, overhead costs are included, the size of which is mainly 15% of the total amount. In addition, the estimates include unforeseen expenses, the size of which in most cases is 2%. The estimate of the contractor's profit is required, the profit profit is 12-15%.
How to make a construction estimate? Of course, adjustments can be made in the estimate. All changes - from the brand of concrete to the wallpaper brand - must be agreed with the customer. The estimate is coordinated with the customer and is an integral part of the contract. Unfair performers will argue that it is impossible to consider all moments in construction and will offer you an estimated estimate, such an estimate should not be taken by the customer, and such performers must be dismissed. Qualified engineers to properly compose a construction estimate, take into account all materials and even such moments as a brand and number of screws. Such an organization should give preference. In the process of construction or repair, changes can be made, but only with the permission of the customer or at your request, of course, if the materials are not yet paid, and the work has not yet been fulfilled. If you correctly draw up a Grand estimate, it will help you to trace the course of construction and pay the contractor's services in the execution stages, because according to the estimate, the schedule of financing and work is drawn up.
Many companies approach the work on the preparation of the estimate is quite flexible, that is, at your request, they calculate several options for estimates, laying in the estimate various types of materials and equipment. After you familiarize yourself with them, you can choose the most optimal option for you. A company that conscientiously refers to customers, you will definitely advise you how to fully fulfill your order and save money.
If you correctly draw up a construction estimate, you can determine the amount necessary for construction and compare it with the possibility of your budget. Perhaps, after familiarizing with the estimated costs, you review certain moments of construction or repair, for example, decide to replace the European Plumbing Patriotic or use in construction instead of a parquet board cheaper laminate. However, with this approach, all existing limits should be taken into account. For example, in order to replace the existing bearing walls from reinforced concrete walls from cheap gas silicate blocks, you will have to make changes to the project, which will require additional time and cash costs. Therefore, the final decisions are better taken at the design stage.
☛ Recall that if you want to get acquainted with the already ready-made shoots on various types of work, you can easily find them in our estimated directory.
☛ Also on our portal there is a consumer reference book with a large number of estimated terms.
Factors and VAT
Probably the most confusing and complex is the system of applying special coefficients. They are both downstream and boost. Can be used in the following cases (examples are given to each):
- Terms of work: the presence of interference in the room, a residential or production building.
- Effect of external factors - winter rise in price.
- Territorial features - corrective coefficients during the transportation of cargo (garbage).
- The way of conducting work is to repair your premises by our own forces.
- Adjustment of the amount of work is the thickness of the plastering layer.
There are many such values, they are installed on both the federal and local level. A non-specialist to understand the legitimacy of their application is difficult, in most cases it is not required to the accountant, but it is necessary to know about their existence.
A large number of questions calls VAT, if more precisely, its absence in the documents that are compiled for simplist firms. When the contractor applies USN and does not pay VAT, it buys materials that in the overwhelming majority include tax. Customers sometimes strive to throw out VAT from the estimate at all, it is rooted incorrectly.
- The estimation is formed taking into account the taxation system of the contractor. If the documentation is ordered from a third party company, it is necessary to warn the compiler on the use of simplified. In such a document, you can see the lines like "VAT compensation in materials."
- If the auction was won, where the estimate is made with VAT, different approaches to the data adjustment are used:
- A separate line indicates the lowering coefficient (if it was) the price of auction is indicated, and then a string of the final value indicating "without VAT", references to Article NK 26.2 "Simplified Taxation System".
- If there is no price reduction (this happens, for example, when only one participant was filed and a contract with it) is also added to the estimate of the same value, but only with the clarification of "excluding VAT" and reference to the NK . The conclusion of the state contract with a simplist is not a reason to reduce the final price on VAT (the letter of the Ministry of Finance No. 24-01-07 / 34829 of 05/15/19).
Note! The coefficients can be indicated line, it can be seen in the column with cipher, and can be reflected in the final table. Depends on the selected calculation method
It is better to agree on a specific version of the final table in terms of VAT with the customer directly. At the same time, it is possible to contact the estimated department, and in the accounting department, because they transmit documents to pay for the Treasury and certainly know which document will be the inspection, which is not.
Tabletable estimates: Rates and resources
The estimates can be drawn up in the rates of GESN - state estimated elemental norms, in regional ter territorial unit rates, in Fer (federal single rates). Each of the bases is characterized by its encryption. The number of collections of rates is very large. The GESN is written as much as 47 collections only on construction work.
With the right approach, the estimation, compiled on the basis of any base, should go out the same in value. But not always it turns out, because Each base has its own characteristics. For example, when drawing up in the GESN, you will see enough detailed information for each position, it is more rolled in ter. But the terns take into account local characteristics: in local compilations, transportation in the city and the specifics of the region can take into account (for example, the absence of a subway means that the work relating to it will be excluded).
In the rates, as already mentioned, the costs of workers, equipment (autotower, cranes, etc.), some materials are taken into account. If you have the opportunity to get an estimate in electronic form and open it in the program (provided the same software; I can not say how correctly the documents created in different programs will open, then you can view the components of each row.
Some positions are surprised. Nails instead of self-tapping screws or soap where it seems to be should not be. The fact is that the collections are often drawn up long ago, and technology is changing. Of course, gradual changes and updates occur, but this is a very slow process, so the repetitions have to use the available data.
By the way! According to creativity and creative approach, the compilation of the estimate is quite comparable to accounting
To understand the legitimacy of incorporating the position in the document, it is important to represent at least in general terms and stages of the work of work
- Materials (mat or MZ). Measured by natural units. These are meters, pieces, tons, etc.
- Workers' costs (OZP). Measured in man-hours.
- Expenses for the time of operation of machines and mechanisms (um). Unit of measurement - car hour. The work of the machines (also man-clock) is included.
Together, three points make up direct costs. This is actually the backbone of the estimate
The most important thing is to pay attention to the amount of consumption of materials. With a changeable economy (even in 2020, this is clearly visible against the background of the crisis-crisis-based crisis), it is necessary to take into account the unexpected change in prices for goods. With a prolonged cycle of work, a fixed estimate will be a problem - an increase in the amount of the contract will not happen, and the costs will increase
With a prolonged cycle of work, a fixed estimate will be a problem - an increase in the amount of the contract will not happen, and the costs will grow.
Important! We especially carefully take advantage of statecies. Winning auction at a reduced price, consider the likelihood of a loss
Not at the expense of the cheaper work (you can hire workers and for lower payment), and by increasing prices for material resources (they are usually clearly stipulated, and it will not be possible to change some materials to others).
How to make a estimate
Calculation of future expenses for the construction of the work of specialists, but if you are confident in your abilities, you can make a estimate for construction and yourself
Calculation of future expenses for the construction of the work of specialists, but if you are confident in your abilities, you can create a estimate for construction and yourself. The photo shows an example of estimates for the construction of a skeleton house. The procedure for compiling a document:
- determine the number of materials;
- find the necessary technique;
- Agree with specialists about construction.
When you already have a view from what a house will be built, as it will look, in which part of the site stand, what materials will be used, it will not be difficult to calculate the final amount. It is worth noting, on the Internet now a large number of construction forums, where you can download an empty blank of the estimate document or make it yourself in the office program.
Estimated to build a house from a tree
So, how to make a estimate for the construction of a house from a tree? To compile estimates, costs are necessary:
- Decide with the sequence of action of actions, understand what works should be entrusted to building organizations, and what can be performed and yourself.
- The following is the calculation of the estimates, depends on the use of construction technologies. It is to determine the volume of building materials and structures, their use.
- When all this data is already there, you can find a company providing construction services, familiarize yourself with the rates, find out the cost of materials and work.
- Next, the component takes all the values obtained and transfers them to its table, where in the context of each type of work or products will be summed upwards.
- When all the data is filled in graphs: Name, cost of work, unit of measurement, you can perform a general summation of the project. For convenience, you can make a total digit into the right side of the table, for this you need to configure the formula. This calculation can be performed for the design of any material and project.
This method calculates the number of materials and the volume of work on all types of houses, regardless of which they are built.
Components of estimates
As noted earlier, during the preparation of estimated paper, a plurality of components are taken into account - the type of contractual organization, the type of measures performed, the work of the work, as well as other aspects of the activity. That is why every estimate made up by different firms has significant differences, and the final parameters will be varying for the construction of different types of buildings.
In addition, the estimated documentation is based on the construction of an object for its needs will differ from the one that contracts form. In the latter case, a number of elements are overlooked from the view. If you decide to arrange the estimate with your own hands, it is worth dealing with its composition and stick to the structure:
- General information about the document. This information is on the title (first) sheet of documentation. They, as a rule, contain data on a contract organization and the customer, provides the name and date of compilation. In addition, details are indicated that would confirm the approval of estimated documentation.
- Construction section. Here the information is grouped by a certain topic, which makes paper simple to understand and interpretation. Sections can wear different names - "finish", "repair" and so on.
- List of materials. When filling in this section, a resource technique is applied, which was considered above, as well as the system of indices for construction work (applied in construction). For each of the positions, personal information is presented - the number in order, the resource cipher by the directories and so on. Estimated documents on the paper object containing information about erected (restored) object. The data is taken from local calculations and securities. Here is also given the number of materials, the cost (for each specific unit) and the total price.
- List of works on the construction estimate. In this section, each of the items indicates the number in order, cipher, name and unit of measurement, the number and labor costs of workers and machinists, the number of man-hours, the average discharge of workers attracted, tariffs, wages, and so on.
- The list of mechanisms, transport and devices that are needed to perform work with the current estimate for construction. For each of the positions, such information is indicated - the number in order, cipher, the name of the vehicle (device, mechanism), the measuring unit, the number of units for operation, the required number of equipment for work, the cost of the position and so on.
- General expenses on estimated documentation. In a separate column, the size of the salary fund, the price of the materials used and the cost of using mechanisms and devices is prescribed.
- Different coefficients, surcharges, discounts, overhead costs, as well as other parameters that are calculated as a certain percentage of the total amount for the estimates.
- VAT size is a parameter that is calculated from the final parameters of the estimated documentation, taking into account additional information.
Also, the estimate indicates the total amount of the estimates, the name and the signature of the compiler and the inspection side. These sections are usually enough to obtain general costs of construction work.
Types of construction estimates
Estimated calculations in construction business are usually compiled as tables in two formats:
- Technological. It includes a list of all processes provided for by technology (repair and construction, commissioning, assembly, special). For each process, the quantitative indicators provided for by the project (volumes) and the rate of consumption of estimated resources (direct costs in the context of the components, labor costs) are given. Calculation is made in the context of each row of the provided operation, partition and common local estimates. Used under the normative method of calculation.
- Resource. It is a limited statement of all necessary for the construction of the facility of services and resources. The need for resources is calculated on the basis of the project, it is also added to difficulty and unreasonable losses. The price of resources is calculated based on the construction, which will take place, wholesale prices. Separately, the cost of materials, external and internal logistics and resource consumption are prescribed. Such design is used in the design method of calculation.
In construction, there are three main types of estimates depending on the technological processes performed:
- Local are compiled by constructive elements or individual types of work. At the same time, they can be carried out both by individual structures and buildings and on all-wide work. Their volume is determined based on the working drawings (working documentation). If this ratio is the only financial document for the contractor, it can carry object functions, it suffices to add a contract organization's profit to it and indirect costs.
- Objects are prepared for a specific completed object (construction, start-up complex, building) and are made up of local estimates that are related to this object. This also adds indirect costs and profits of performers in accordance with standards, agreement of the parties or branded calculation.
- Consolidated characterize the level of costs throughout the project. They combine the cost of all major and auxiliary objects, as well as other expenses incurred by the customer.
Local estimate example:
But what kind of object estimation can have a construction estimate:
In the case when the scope of work applied and the amount of costs is not finally approved and will be adjusted, the exact estimate will not be able to make up. In such cases, appropriate estimated calculations are drawn up, where the approximate cost of work is more generally calculated. Also, estimated calculations are prepared for certain types of expenses, which cannot be included in any object and take into account in standards (expert opinions, compensation for a plot of land seized for the construction, applying various legislative surgasives and benefits).
Classification of estim
Often, the preliminary definition of the value of a large construction site seems very difficult and even impossible due to constantly changing prices for labor resources, energy carriers, building materials, equipment and tools. In such cases, the estimates go on the principle of "from smaller to more", using various types of estimates:
- Local prepared on one or another type of work, based on the volume of work, the number and range of equipment, existing estimated standards, market tariffs and prices. For example, internal sanitary work, landscaping of the territory or installation of the alarm system. The price set by the local estimate includes direct costs, estimated profits and overhead.
- Objects. Formed in the current or basic price level of prices for a specific object by the method of summing up several local estimates and grouping data on the sections "Equipment", "Installation work", "Construction work", "Other costs". This also includes funds provided for the coating of so-called limited costs (temporary structures, rise in price in winter processes).
- Complete calculation is estimated. It shows the limit of the funds required for the complete completion of the object provided by the project, it opens the financing of construction work. The consolidated calculation includes all object estimates and calculations for certain types of expenses. It is formed for the construction as a whole, regardless of the number of contractors, based on the current price level. The means are distributed across separate chapters depending on the specific object. When drawing up a consolidated estimate, the instruction involves the presence of an explanatory note with a text description of the main construction parameters.
When determining the cost of work, much depends on the agreement provided by the parties to prepare information documents. Here you can distinguish several types of estimates:
Conceptual. Preparing at the Stage Study of the TEO of the Investment Offer. Based on the power of the object or the value of the consumer properties unit. Accuracy from 17 to 20%.
Investors Developed in the pre-project stage as the basis for the starting price during trading. At the same time, the master plan, sketch, the scheme for placing the structure, integrated calculation on the specifications of the equipment and the volume of work. Accuracy from 10 to 13%.
Estimation contractor. Compiled on the basis of tender documentation in preparation for the conclusion of the Agreement. With its preparation, the contractor uses Fer and Ter and the experience of the construction of such objects earlier. There are already inflation losses, the profit of the organization and expenses of subcontractors. Accuracy from 5 to 7%.
Extra designer. More complete documentation (project, working circuits and drawings, single rates, elemental norms, average sectoral prices), which increases the accuracy of calculations to 2-5%.
It is calculated according to the actual costs of the contractor at the final stage of construction, therefore additional costs have been taken into account into account. According to this financial document, the final book value of the erected object is calculated.
The estimate can be a view of the table, in the columns of which the types of work are indicated, their volume, amount, price and the cost of building materials, as well as additional processes and resources. In another embodiment, it is possible to use such sections as direct costs (operation of equipment, labor payment, purchase of building materials), overhead costs (deductions to funds, business trips, labor protection) and estimated profits
To confirm the correctness of the financial calculations made, identifying inaccuracies and making the necessary changes, the Customer has the right to apply to independent experts. Their services, as a rule, cost from 0.3 to 0.5% of the total cost of construction.